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- 1. conceptual development
- 2. Memory
- 3. Metacognition and mental representations
Conceptual development. Major points.
- 1. Inductive learning and categorisation
- Abstract/discrete vs distributed
- 2. Historically belived to be abstract and separate from sensory perceptual representations. However, incremental development and distributed neuroimaging examples (eg. 'robin' activates many areas) suggest a more distributed network.
- 3. Rosch: world is naturally bundled into attributes
- Basic level categorisation - most accessible - most info with little cognitive effort (eg. dogs vs cars)
- 4. Bauer & Mandler (1989) - triads test
- 16-31mo children sort successfully both basic and superordinate levels (eg. 3 pictures of animals, 3 of vehicles)
- 5. Conceptual learning based around prototypes (basic level objects); infants behaviour with objects conceptually-based
What is the idea that structure of language affects its speakers' world view or cognition.
Children's memories. The major types of memories discussed.
- 1. Autobiographical
- 2. Implicit
- 3. Explicit
Autobiographical memories. Major points.
- a. Infantile amnesia
- b. Freud: repress emotionally traumatic events of early childhood --> however we can't even remember pleasant memories
- c. Cannot be coded by language so coded by action, and thus not in memory? However, this period requires conscious recall for concept learning and language that it is probably not plausible
- d. Fivush & Hammond: need to learn framework for recounting and storing events so unable to store effectively.
- Also, when creating frameworks, would be focusing on similarities of routines, routine aspects of events do not make good future retrieval cues.
- e. Nelson (1986): Scripts
- Children focus on remembering routines (eg. script for shopping0
- Novel events remembered because it departs from expected script
Development of implicit memory. Major points.
- 1. Seems to be well-established from young age, and does not develop that much
- 2. Bullock, Drummey & Newcombe (1995)
- 3yo, 5yo, adults shown blurry versions of pictures they had seen 3 months before
- Implicit memory scores same for all of them, but explicit memory is better as you get older (adults were best)
- Different developmental trajectory to explicit memory.
Explicit memory. Major points.
- 1. More protracted (longer) developmental trajetory
- 2. Increased recognition of importance of 'meta-knowledge' (or metacognition) - about memory processes [self-regulation and monitoring]
- Awareness of strategies (eg. rehearsal)
- Monitoring of one's performance with these strategies
- 3. Adults have richer knowledge structures which enables better encoding
- 4. Flavell, Beach & Chinsky (1966): rehearsal in 5, 7, 10 yo
- Spontaneous rehearsal increased with age
- Spotnaneous use of reheasal may be a 'production deficiency'
- So they may be able to use strategies but they may not be able to do it spontaneously
Metacognition. Main points.
- 1. performance in metacognition correaltes with ToM tasks like false belief task
- 2. Wimmer and Perner (1983): false belief task (chocolate hiding) --> novel cognitive skill emerged between 4-6yo
- the ability to represent epistemic states of 2 people
- co-ordinating different mental representations
- 3. Zaitchek et al (1991): 'false photograph task'
- Photo taken of object in one location, then object moved. In picture, where is object?
- 3,4yo performed worse in this than standard false belief tasks
- 4. Flavell et al (1983): support Wimmer & Perner's study --> Appearance/Reality task
- Situations where reality differed from appearance (eg. sponge look s like rock etc)
- Asked whether it was actually a rock etc.
- 3yo found it difficult, whereas 4/5 yo rarely confused appearance and reality
Possible reasons for why young children find mental representation tasks difficult?
- keeping track of where representations come from
- reflecting on own representations
- gradually develop ability to inhibit innapropriate repsponses - executive function?
Activities/other abilities that facilitate theory of mind?
- Discourse important for understanding mental states (family, silings --> look at PBS3?)
- Play:help meta-representations as they create imaginary roles
What longitudinal study shows the link between these different factors to determine social and cognitive development in childhood?
- Dunn, Hughes et al (many studies)
- linkes between:
- 1. pretend play and later ToM
- 2. high rates of mental state talk and later ToM
- 3. amount of role enactment and later ToM
- 4. early violent pretend play and later deficits in social cogntiion