chemistry terms2

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chemistry terms2
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2010-09-21 20:48:22
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chemistry terms 2
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  1. solution
    a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
  2. solvent
    the majority component of a solution
  3. solute
    the minority component of a solution
  4. solubility
    the amount of subsstance that will dissolve ina given amount of solvent
  5. entropy
    the measure of the energy randomization or energy dispersal in a system
  6. miscible
    if solute-solvent interaction are comparabl or stronger than solute-solute interactions and solvent-solvent interactions
  7. enthalpy of hydration
    • the enthalpy change that occurs when one mole of gaseous solute ions are dissoved in water
    • it is always negative for ionic compounds because the ion dipole interacions that occur btw a dissolved ion and the surrounding water olecules are stonger than the h bonds in water
    • it is the delta h of solvent plus the delta h of mix
    • delta hof solute is the positive part and delta h of hydration is negative = delta h of solution
  8. dynamic equilibrium
    when the rates of dissolution and deposition are equal
  9. Saturated solution
    when dynamic equilibrium has been reached(if u add more solue it won't dissolve)
  10. unsaturated
    • a solution containing less than the equilibrium amount of solute
    • if u add more solute itwill dissolve
  11. supersaturated
    • in certain conditions a solutions can contain moe than the equilibrium amount
    • unstable
  12. recrystalization
    • technique for purification
    • put the solid in water at an elevated temp, enough to ba saturated at that elevated temp as it cools it becomes supersaturated and excess solid comes out, if cooled slowly it comes out in crystals which reject impurities
  13. henrys law
    • Sgas+kHPgas
    • the equations shows that the solubility of the gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of a gas above the liquid
  14. concentrated
    containing large quantities of the solute compared to the solvent
  15. colliod
    • a mixture in which a dispersed substance is inely divided in dispersing medium
    • ex fog smoke milk
  16. molarity
    • amount of solute(moles)
    • volume of solution(liters)
  17. molality
    • amount of solute(moles)
    • mass of solvent(kg)
  18. parts by mass
    • a ratio of the mass of the soute to the mass of the soution multiplied by a multiplication factor
    • the multiplication factor depends on the particular units used for percent by mss its 100 for ppm its 10 to the 6th for ppb its 10 to the 9th
  19. parts by volume
    is a ratio of volume of solute to volume of solution multiplication facts are identical to parts by mass
  20. mole fraction
    • amount solute(mole)
    • total amount of solute and solvent(moles)
  21. Raoults law
    • Psolution=XsolventP0solvent
    • Psolution=vapor pessure of the solution
    • Xsolvent=the mole fraction of the solvent
    • Psolvent=vapor presure of the pure solvent
  22. colligative property
    • properties that depend on the amount of solute and not the type of solute
    • ex freezing point depression and bioling point elevation
  23. vapor presure of a solution
    vapor pressure of a solution is lower than the vapor pressure of the pure solvent picture n page 541
  24. freezing point depression
    • the freezing point of a solution containing a nonvolitile solute is less han that of a pure solvent
    • change in temp=m * Kf
    • change in temp =the change in frezzing point in degrees celcius
    • m=the molality of the solutionin moles perkilogram solvent
    • Kf=the freezing point depression constant for that solvent
  25. bioling point elevation
    • the boiling point of a solution containing a nonvolitile solute is greater than that of the pure solvent
    • the change in temp=m*Kb
    • the change in temp=the change in boiling point
    • m=molality of the solution in moles per kilogram solvent
    • Kb=elevation of boiling point constant for that solvent
  26. osmosis
    the flow of solvent from a solution of lower solute concentration to one of higher solute concentration
  27. osmotic pressure
    • the pressure required to stop osmotic flow
    • II=MRT
    • M=molarity of the soltion
    • T=temperature inK
    • R=ideal gas constant(0.08206L*atm/mol*K
  28. precipitate
    a solid insoluble compound that forms in and separates from a solution
  29. precipitation reaction
    a reaction in which a solid insoluble product forms upon mixing two solutions
  30. net ionic equation
    an equation that shows only the species that actually changed during the reaction
  31. complex ion
    an ion that contains a central metal ion bound to one or more ligands
  32. intensive property
    a property such as density that is independent of the amount of a given substance
  33. intensive property v colligative property
    • intensiv property is like density it doesnt matter how much of something you have the density is stil the same
    • colligative property depends on the amount bt not the type
  34. complex ions
    an ion that contains a central metal ion bound to one or more ligands
  35. law of mass action
    • ratio : products on top rectants on bottom
    • anything disolved(aq) is put in brackets(molarity)
    • and anythin in gas state is put as a subscript of P (partial pressure)
    • s and l ae ignored
  36. equilibrium constant
    K
  37. equilibrium position
    whether it shifts rt or left or no shift when stuff is changed

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