S2 (Social Influence) PBS5

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  1. What is conformity and what 3 things can it result in?
    • Conformity: changing one's behaviour/beliefs in response to explicit or implicit pressure from others (imagined or not)
    • 3 consequences:
    • 1. compliance
    • 2. obedience
    • 3. conversion/acceptance
  2. 3 major studies in conformity
    • Sheriff (1935) - informational social influence (lacks knowledge)
    • a. autoknetic effect of pinpoint of light and estimate how much it moves
    • b. v. different estimates at first, but group norm emerges over time
    • Asch (1955)- normative social influence (knows answer but compliance)
    • a. standard line and 3 comparison lines (which one matches standard line?)
    • b. chose correct one only 63% of time
    • Milgram (1965) - obedience
    • a. 63% of 'teachers' went beyong 450v --> much higher than predicted
  3. Milgram's study. Some other findings.
    • Proximity of expermenter: obedience drops (21%) when experimenter distant
    • Proximity of learner: if learner cannot be seen or heard --> almost 100% obedience
    •    touch condition --> obedience reduced massively
    • Group pressure: 2 disobedient --> drops to 10%
    •   2 obedient --> 93%
  4. Milgram also changed some other aspects of experiment what were they and the findings.
    • Legitimacy: Yale prestigeous --> storefront, obedience drops but still 48%
    • Step-by-step involvement: participants not asked to go highest level immediately
    • Release from responsibility: experimenter responsible
  5. Because of ethical considerations, there have been replications that are more ethical. List.
    • Burger (2009): capping shock at 150v (80% will go all the way once they reach 150)
    • Virtual reality (Slater): realistic (start talking to learner avatar) --> skin conductance rose more for seen avatar than unseen
  6. Zimbardo's prison experiment and controversies.
    • 1. fitted rhetoric of Hannah Arendt (1963) about 'banality of evil' surrounding Adolf Eichmann's trial
    • 2. However, historians & psychologists challenged this --> cannot simply be explained by 'evilness of situation'
    • Evidence that Eichmann hated Jews and fantatical bully
    • 3. Importance for person-situation effect
    • 4. Burger: blind obedience not most important (strongest instruction had 100% resistance) 
    • 5. ALSO: cohort effect
    • 6. People choose to bein certain positions 
    • Carnahan & McFarland: much less people volunteer for 'pscyhological study of prison life' and those who do have systematic personality difference to other normal ones
  7. What conditions produce maximum conformity?
    • Task: difficult; participant feel insecure
    • Group: group size (Asch 5 more than 2, but not after 5)
    • Status: higher-status people have more impact; lower-status more likely to conform (blue collar vs professor)
    • Personality: weak but exists (low self esteem; low IQ; high anxiety) --> we must remember the bidirectional person-situation fit though (Buss)
    • Culture: individualistic vs collectivist (Markus and Kitayama)
  8. Reasons for conforming. Who came up with the 2 types of social influence already mentioned? What are they?
    • Deutsch and Gerard (1955)
    • Informational social influence
    • Normative social influence
  9. Resisting social pressure.
    • when infleunce attempts are blatant 
    • asserting own uniqueness
    • Allen (1975): replaced one confederate in Asch sudy with dissenter --> conformity drastically reduced
    • Individual sharing isolated viewpoint helps resist influence even if viewpoint is not shared
  10. Minority social influence.
    • Moscovici (1976)
    • cannot be explained by same priciples explaining majority influence
    • lies in their consistent and clear behavioural style
    • consistency: diachronic (stability over time); synchronic (interindividual consistency)
  11. Moscovici's observed difference of process of majority vs minority influence.
    • Majority: 
    • social comparison process
    • normative response of group
    • any private acceptance short-lived
    • Minority:
    • validation process (why are we here)
    • privately infleunced by not necessriy public compliance
Card Set:
S2 (Social Influence) PBS5
2016-04-29 22:07:18
social psychology pbs5

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