Lower Extremity Muscles

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Author:
rustemk
ID:
31964
Filename:
Lower Extremity Muscles
Updated:
2010-08-31 21:52:41
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Muscles Legs Lower Extremities
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Description:
Origins, Insertions, Actions, and Innervations of the Muscles of the Lower Extremity
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  1. Abductor Hallucis
    • Origin: Medial process of tuberosity of the calcaneus, flexor retinaculum, plantar aponeurosis, and adjacent intermuscular septum
    • Insertion: Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of great toe. Some fibers are attached to medial sesamoid bone, and a tendinous slip may extend to base of proximal phalanx of great toe.
    • Action: Abducts and assists in flexion of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe, and assists with adduction of the forefoot.
    • Innervation: Tibial, L4, 5, S1
  2. Adductor Hallucis
    • Origin:
    • Oblique Head - From bases of second through fourth metatarsal bones and sheath of the tendon of the peroneus longus
    • Transverse Head - From plantar metatarsophalangeal ligaments of third through fifth digits and deep transverse metatarsal ligament.
    • Insertion: Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of great toe
    • Action: Adducts and assists in flexing the MTP joint of the great toe
    • Innervation: Tibial, S1-2
  3. Flexor Hallucis Brevis
    • Origin: Medial part of the plantar surface of the cuboid bone, adjacent part of the lateral cuneiform bone, and from prolongation of the tendon of the tibialis posterior
    • Insertion: Medial and lateral sides of the base of the proximal phalanx of the great toe
    • Action: Flexes the MTP joint of the great toe
    • Innervation: Tibial, L4, 5, S1
  4. Flexor Hallucis Longus
    • Origin: Posterior surface of distal 2/3 of fibula, interosseous membrane, and adjacent intermuscular septa and fascia
    • Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of great toe, plantar surface
    • Action: Flexes IP joint of great toe, assists in flexion of MTP joint, plantarflexion of ankle, and inversion of foot
    • Innervation: Tibial, L5-S2
  5. Extensor Hallucis Longus
    • Origin: Middle two quarters of anterior surface of fibula and adjacent interosseous membrane
    • Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of great toe
    • Action: Extends MTP and IP joints of the great toe, assists in inversion of the foot and dorsiflexion of the ankle
    • Innervation: Deep Peroneal, L4, 5, S1
  6. Extensor Hallucis Brevis
    • Origin: Distal part of superior and lateral surfaces of calcaneus, lateral talocalcaneal ligament, and apex of inferior extensor retinaculum
    • Insertion: Dorsal surface of base of proximal phalanx of great toe
    • Action: Extends MTP joint of the great toe
    • Innervation: Deep Peroneal, L4, 5, S1
  7. Lumbricales (4)
    • Origin:
    • 1st - Medial side of first flexor digitorum longus tendon
    • 2nd - Adjacent sides of first and second flexor digitorum longus tendons
    • 3rd - Adjacent sides of second and third flexor digitorum longus tendons
    • 4th - Adjacent sides of third and fourth flexor digitorum longus tendons
    • Insertion: Medial side of proximal phalanx and dorsal expansion of the extensor digitorum longus tendon of the second through fifth digits
    • Action: Flexes MTP joints and assists in extending IP joints of second through fifth digits
    • Innervation:
    • 1st - Tibial, L4, 5, S1
    • 2nd-4th - Tibial, (L4-5), S1-2
  8. Plantar Interossei (3)
    • Origin: Base and medial side of bodies of third through fifth metatarsal bones
    • Insertion: Medial sides of bases of proximal phalanges of same digit
    • Action: Adduct the third, fourth, and fifth digits toward the axial line through the second digit. Assist in flexion of the MTP joints, may assist in extension of the IP joints of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th digits.
    • Innervation: Tibial, S1-2
  9. Dorsal Interossei (4)
    • Origin: Each by 2 heads from adjacent sides of metatarsal bones
    • Insertion: Side of proximal phalanx and capsule of MTP joint
    • 1st - To medial side of 2nd digit
    • 2nd-4th - To lateral side of second through fourth digits
    • Action: Abducts second through fourth digits from the axial line through the second digit. Assists in flexion of the MTP joints, and may assist in extension of the IP joints, of the second through fourth digits.
    • Innervation: Tibial, S1-2
  10. Flexor Digitorum Brevis
    • Origin: Medial process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus, central part of the plantar aponeurosis, and adjacent intermuscular septa
    • Insertion: Middle phalanx of the second through fifth digits
    • Action: Flexes the proximal IP joints, and assists in flexion of the MTP joints of the second through fifth digits
    • Innervation: Tibial, L4, 5, S1
  11. Flexor Digitorum Longus
    • Origin: Middle 3/5 of posterior surface of body of tibia and from fascia covering the tibialis posterior
    • Insertion: Bases of distal phalanges of second through fifth digits
    • Action: Flexes PIP and DIP joints of second through fifth digits. Assists in plantarflexion of the ankle joint and inversion of the foot.
    • Innervation: Tibial, L5, S1, (2)
  12. Quadratus Plantae (Flexor Accessorius)
    • Origin:
    • Medial Head - Medial surface of calcaneus and medial border of long plantar ligament
    • Lateral Head - Lateral border of plantar surface of calcaneus and lateral border of long plantar ligament
    • Insertion: Lateral margin and dorsal and plantar surfaces of tendon of flexor digitorum longus
    • Action: Modifies line of pull of the flexor digitorum longus tendons, and assists in flexing the second through fifth digits
    • Innervation: Tibial, S1-2
  13. Extensor Digitorum Longus
    • Origin: Lateral condyle of the tibia, proximal 3/4 of the anterior surface of the body of the fibula, proximal part of the interosseous membrane, adjacent intermuscular septa, and deep fascia
    • Insertion: By four tendons to the second through fifth digits. Each tendon forms and expansion on the dorsal surface of the toe an divides into an intermediate slip attached to the base of the middle phalanx, and into two lateral slips attached to the base of the distal phalanx
    • Action: Extends the MTP joints, and assists in extending the IP joints of the second through fifth digits. Assists in dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and eversion of the foot
    • Innervation: Peroneal, L4-S1
  14. Extensor Digitorum Brevis
    • Origin: Distal part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the calcaneus, lateral talocalcaneal ligament and apex of the inferior extensor retinaculum
    • Insertion: By four tendons to the first through fourth digits. The most medial slip, aka the Extensor Hallucis Brevis, inserts into the dorsal surface of the base of the proximal phalanx of the great toe. The other three tendons join the lateral sides of the tendons of the extensor digitorum longus to the second, third, and fourth digits.
    • Action: Extends MTP joints of the first through fourth digits, and assists in extending the IP joints of the second through fourth digits
    • Innervation: Deep Peroneal, L4, 5, S1
  15. Peroneus Tertius
    • Origin: Distal 1/3 of anterior surface of fibula, interosseous membrane, and adjacent intermuscular septum
    • Insertion: Dorsal surface, base of the fifth metatarsal
    • Action: Dorsiflexes ankle joint, and everts foot
    • Innervation: Deep Peroneal, L4-S1
  16. Tibialis Anterior
    • Origin: Lateral condyle and proximal 1/2 of lateral surface of tibia, interosseous membrane, deep fascia and lateral intermuscular septum
    • Insertion: Medial and plantar surface of medial cuneiform, base of first metatarsal
    • Action: Dorsiflexes the ankle, assists in inversion of the foot
    • Innervation: Deep Peroneal, L4, 5, S1
  17. Tibialis Posterior
    • Origin: Most of interosseous membrane, lateral portion of the posterior surface of the tibia, proximal 2/3 of medial surface of the fibula, adjacent intermuscular septa and deep fascia
    • Insertion: Tuberosity of the navicular and by fibrous expansions to the sustentaculum tali, three cuneiforms, cuboid, and bases of second through fourth metatarsal bones
    • Action: Inverts foot, assists in plantarflexion of ankle
    • Innervation: Tibial, L(4), 5, S1
  18. Peroneus Longus
    • Origin: Lateral condyle of the tibia, head and proximal 2/3 of the lateral surface of the fibula, intermuscular septa and adjacent deep fascia
    • Insertion: Lateral side of the base of the first metatarsal and of the medial cuneiform
    • Action: Everts the foot, assists in plantarflexion of the ankle and depresses the head of the first metatarsal
    • Innervation: Superficial Peroneal, L4, 5, S1
  19. Peroneus Brevis
    • Origin: Distal 2/3 of lateral surface of fibula and adjacent intermuscular septa
    • Insertion: Tuberosity at the base of the fifth metatarsal, lateral side
    • Action: Everts the foot, assists in plantarflexion of the ankle
    • Innervation: Superficial Peroneal, L4, 5, S1
  20. Soleus
    • Origin: Posterior surfaces of the head of the fibula and proximal 1/3 of its body, soleal line and middle 1/3 of the medial border of the tibia, and tendinous arch between tibia and fibula
    • Insertion: With tendon of gastrocnemius into posterior surface of calcaneus
    • Action: Plantarflexes the ankle joint
    • Innervation: Tibial, L5, S1, 2
  21. Gastrocnemius
    • Origin:
    • Medial Head - Proximal and posterior part of medial condyle and adjacent part of femur, capsule of knee joint
    • Lateral Head - Lateral condyle and posterior surface of femur, capsule of knee joint
    • Insertion: Middle part of posterior surface of calcaneus
    • Action: Plantarflex the ankle and assist in flexion of the knee
    • Innervation: Tibial, S1-2
  22. Plantaris
    • Origin: Distal part of lateral supracondylar line of femur, adjacent part of its popliteal surface and oblique popliteal ligament of knee joint
    • Insertion: Posterior part of calcaneus
    • Action: Plantarflex ankle and assist in flexion of the knee
    • Innervation: Tibial, L4, 5, S1, (2)
  23. Popliteus
    • Origin: Anterior part of the groove on the lateral condyle of the femur and oblique popliteal ligament of the knee joint
    • Insertion: Triangular area proximal to the soleal line on the posterior surface of the tibia and fascia covering the muscle
    • Action: In nonweight bearing, popliteus medially rotates tibia on femur and flexes the knee joint. In weight bearing, laterally rotates femur on tibia and flexes the knee joint. Helps to reinforce posterior ligaments of the knee joint
    • Innervation: Tibial, L4, 5, S1
  24. Semitendinosus
    • ´╗┐Origin: Tuberosity of the ischium by the tendon common with the long head of the biceps femoris
    • Insertion: Proximal part of the medial surface of the body of the tibia and deep fascia of the leg
    • Action: Flexes and medially rotates the knee joint. Extends and assists in medial rotation of the hip joint.
    • Innervation: Sciatic (Tibial branch), L4, 5, S1-2
  25. Semimembranosus
    • Origin: Tuberosity of the ischium, proximal and lateral to the biceps femoris and semitendinosus
    • Insertion: Posteromedial aspect of medial condyle of tibia
    • Action: Flexes and medially rotates the knee, extends and assists with medial rotation of the hip
    • Innervation: Sciatic (Tibial branch), L4, 5, S1-2
  26. Biceps Femoris
    • Origin:
    • Long Head - Distal part of the sacrotuberous ligament and posterior part of the tuberosity of the ischium
    • Short Head - Lateral lip of the linea aspera, proximal 2/3 of the supracondylar line, and lateral intermuscular septum
    • Insertion: Lateral side of the head of the fibula, lateral condyle of the tibia, deep fascia on the lateral side of the leg
    • Action: Both flex and laterally rotate the knee; long head also extends and assists in lateral rotation of the hip
    • Innervation:
    • Long Head - Sciatic (Tibial branch), L5, S1, 2, 3
    • Short Head - Sciatic (Peroneal branch), L5-S2
  27. Rectus Femoris
    • Origin:
    • Straight head - From anteroinferior iliac spine
    • Reflected head - From groove above rim of acetabulum
    • Insertion: Proximal border of patella and through patellar ligament to tuberosity of tibia
    • Action: Extends knee, flexes hip
    • Innervation: Femoral, L2-4
  28. Vastus Lateralis
    • Origin: Proximal part of the intertrochanteric line, anterior and inferior borders of the greater trochanter, lateral lip of the gluteal tuberosity, proximal half of the lateral lip of linea aspera, and lateral intermuscular septum
    • Insertion: Proximal border of the patella and through patellar ligament to tuberosity of the tibia
    • Action: Extends knee
    • Innervation: Femoral, L2-4
  29. Vastus Intermedius
    • Origin: Anterior and lateral surfaces of the proximal 2/3 of the body of the femur, distal half of the linea aspera, and lateral intermuscular septum
    • Insertion: Proximal border of the patella and through the patellar ligament to the tuberosity of the tibia
    • Action: Extends knee
    • Innervation: Femoral, L2-4
  30. Vastus Medialis
    • Origin: Distal half of the intertrochanteric line, medial lip of the linea aspera, proximal part of the medial supracondylar line, tendons of the adductor longus and adductor magnus and medial intermuscular septum
    • Insertion: Proximal border of the patella and through the patellar ligament to the tuberosity of the tibia
    • Action: Extends knee
    • Innervation: Femoral, L2-4
  31. Articularis Genus
    • May be blended with Vastus Intermedius but is usually distinct
    • Origin: Anterior surface of distal part of body of femur
    • Insertion: Proximal part of synovial membrane of knee
    • Action: Draws the articular capsule proximally
    • Innervation: Branch of nerve to vastus intermedius (Femoral, L2-4)
  32. Psoas Major
    • Origin: Ventral surfaces of transverse processes of all lumbar vertebrae, sides of bodies and corresponding intervertebral disks of last thoracic and lal lumbar vertebrae, and membranous arches that extend overs dies of bodies of lumbar vertebrae
    • Insertion: Lesser trochanter of femur
    • Action: Flexes hip joint, may assist in lateral rotation and abduction of the hip joint. Acting bilaterally in sitting, it increases lumbar lordosis. Acting unilaterally in sitting, it will assist in lateral ipsilateral trunk flexion
    • Innervation: Lumbar plexus, L1, 2, 3, 4
  33. Iliacus
    • Origin: Superior 2/3 of iliac fossa, internal lip of the iliac crest, iliolumbar and ventral sacroiliac ligaments, and ala of the sacrum
    • Insertion: Lateral side of tendon of the psoas major and just distal to lesser trochanter
    • Action: Flexes hip joint, may assist in lateral rotation and abduction of the hip joint. Acting bilaterally in sitting, it increases lumbar lordosis. Acting unilaterally in sitting, it will assist in lateral ipsilateral trunk flexion
    • Innervation: Femoral, L(1), 2, 3, 4
  34. Psoas Minor
    • Origin: Sides of bodies of 12th thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae and from intervertebral disk between
    • Insertion: Iliopectineal eminence, arcuate line of ilium, and iliac fascia
    • Action: Flexion of pelvis on lumbar spine
    • Innervation: Lumbar plexus, L1-2
  35. Sartorius
    • Origin: Anterosuperior iliac spine and superior half of notch distal to spine
    • Insertion: Proximal part of medial surface of tibia near anterior border
    • Action: Flexes, laterally rotates, and abducts hip; flexes and assists in medial rotation of the knee
    • Innervation: Femoral, L2, 3, (4)
  36. Tensor Fasciae Latae (TFL)
    • Origin: Anterior part of external lip of iliac crest, outer surface of anterosuperior iliac spine and deep surface of fascia lata
    • Insertion: Into iliotibial tract of fascia lata at the junction of the proximal and middle thirds of the thigh
    • Action: Flexes, medially rotates, and abducts the hip; tenses fascia lata; may assist in knee extension
    • Innervation: Superior gluteal, L4-S1
  37. Pectineus
    • Origin: Surface of superior ramus of pubis, ventral to pecten, between iliopectineal eminence and pubic tubercle
    • Insertion: Pectineal line of femur
    • Action: Adduct hip, flex hip joint
    • Innervation: Femoral and Obturator, L2, 3, 4
  38. Adductor Magnus
    • Origin: Inferior pubic ramus, ramus of ischium (anterior fibers), and ischial tuberosity (posterior fibers)
    • Insertion: Medial to gluteal tuberosity, middle of linea aspera, medial supracondylar line, an dadductor tubercle of medial condyle of femur
    • Action: Adduct hip. Anterior fibers may assist in hip flexion; posterior may assist in extension
    • Innervation: Obturator, L2, 3, 4; Sciatic, L4, 5, S1
  39. Gracilis
    • Origin: Inferior half of symphysis pubis and medial margin of inferior ramus of pubic bone
    • Insertion: Medial surface of body of tibia, distal to condyle, proximal to insertion of semitendinosus, and lateral to insertion of sartorius
    • Action: Adducts hip, flexes and medially rotates knee
    • Innervation: Obturator, L2-4
  40. Adductor Brevis
    • Origin: Outer surface of inferior ramus of pubis
    • Insertion: Distal 2/3 of pectineal line and proximal half of medial lip of the linea aspera
    • Action: Adduct hip, flex hip
    • Innervation: Obturator, L2-4
  41. Adductor Longus
    • Origin: Anterior surface of pubis at junction of crest and symphysis
    • Insertion: Middle 1/3 of medial lip of linea aspera
    • Action: Adduct hip, flex hip
    • Innervation: Obturator, L2, 3, 4
  42. Piriformis
    • Origin: Pelvic surface of sacrum between and lateral to first through fourth pelvic sacral foramina, margin of greater sciatic foramen and pelvic surface of sacrotuberous ligament
    • Insertion: Superior border of greater trochanter
    • Action: Laterally rotate, may assist in abduction (when flexed) and extension of hip
    • Innervation: Sacral plexus, L(5), S1-2
  43. Quadratus Femoris
    • Origin: Proximal part of lateral border of tuberosity of ischium
    • Insertion: Proximal part of quadrate line, extending distally from the intertrochanteric crest
    • Action: Laterally rotate hip
    • Innervation: Sacral plexus, L4-5, S1, (2)
  44. Obturator Internus
    • Origin: Internal or pelvic surface of obturator membrane and margin of obturator foramen, pelvic surface of ischium posterior and proximal to obturator foramen, and to a slight extent, obturator fascia
    • Insertion: Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur, proximal to trochanteric fossa
    • Action: Laterally rotate, may assist in abduction (when flexed) of hip
    • Innervation: Sacral plexus, L5-S2
  45. Obturator Externus
    • Origin: Rami of pubis and ischium, external surface of obturator membrane
    • Insertion: Trochanteric fossa of femur
    • Action: Laterally rotate, may assist in adduction of hip
    • Innervation: Obturator, L3-4
  46. Gemellus Superior
    • Origin: External surface of spine of ischium
    • Insertion: With tendon of obturator internus, into medial surface of greater trochanter of femur
    • Action: Laterally rotate, may assist in abduction (when flexed) of hip
    • Innervation: Sacral plexus, L5-S2
  47. Gemellus Inferior
    • Origin: Proximal part of the tuberosity of the ischium
    • Insertion: With tendon of obturator internus, into medial surface of greater trochanter of femur
    • Action: Laterally rotate, ma assist in adduction (when flexed) of hip
    • Innervation: Sacral plexus, L4-5, S1, (2)
  48. Gluteus Minimus
    • Origin: External surface of ilium, between anterior and inferior gluteal lines and margin of greater sciatic notch
    • Insertion: Anterior border of greater trochanter of femur and hip joint capsule
    • Action: Abducts, medially rotates, and may assist in flexion of hip
    • Innervation: Superior Gluteal, L4-S1
  49. Gluteus Medius
    • Origin: External surface of ilium, between iliac crest and posterior gluteal line dorsally and anterior gluteal line ventrally and gluteal aponeurosis
    • Insertion: Oblique ridge on lateral surface of greater trochanter of femur
    • Action: Abducts hip, anterior fibers medially rotate and may assist in flexion of hip joint, posterior fibers laterally rotate and may assist in extension
    • Innervation: Superior Gluteal, L4-S1
  50. Gluteus Maximus
    • Origin: Posterior gluteal line of ilium and portion of bone superior and posterior to it, posterior surface of lower part of sacrum, side of coccyx, aponeurosis of erector spinae, sacrotuberous ligament and gluteal aponeurosis
    • Insertion: Larger proximal portion and superficial fibers of distal portion of muscle into iliotibial tract of fascia lata. Deeper fibers of distal portion into gluteal tuberosity of the femur.
    • Action: Extends and laterally rotates hip. Lower fibers assist in adduction of hip, upper fibers assist in abduction. Through insertion into iliotibial tract, helps stabilize knee in extension.
    • Innervation: Inferior Gluteal, L5-S2

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