Chapter 12: Work, Leisure, and Retirement

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  1. Work is a source for friends and often spouses/ partners. 

    Specific occupation doesn't __
    affect the workers' need to derive meaning from work. (money--> necessities; personal growth)
  2. Four meanings that describe work
    • developing self
    • union with others
    • expressing self
    • serving others
  3. meaning-mission fit
    corporate executive with better personal-mission alignment care more about employees' happiness, job satisfaction, and emotional well-being

    alignment of an executive's personal intentions and their firm's missions
  4. career construction theory
    people build careers through their own actions that result from the interface of their own personal characteristics and the social context
  5. Two theories of occupational choice
    Holland's personality type theory

    social cognitive career theory
  6. Holland's personality-type theory
    choose occupations to optimize person-occupation fit

    six personality types that represent different combinations have been identified (investigative, social, realistic, artistic, conventional, enterprising)
  7. Social cognitive career theory
    career choice is the result of the application of Bandura's social cognitive theory, especially self-effficacy
  8. There are four factor and six factor versions of which theory?
    social cognitive career theory
  9. What are the variables of social cognitive career theory
    • self-efficacy
    • outcome expectation (what you think will happen)
    • interests
    • choice goals (what you want to achieve)
    • supports
    • barriers
  10. People have expectations about what?

    What happens to these expectations?
    what they want to become and when they hope to get there

    they change as the result of changes in interests, the dream not being a good fit, discrimination, lack of opportunity, lack of skills
  11. Milennials vs baby boomers
    Millennials are more likely to change jobs--cynicism and distrust in organizaiton

    They value innovation and teamwork more than baby boomers
  12. Reality shock
    the realization that what you learn in the classroom does not always transfer directly into the "real world" and does not represent all that you need to know

    ex: nursing and teaching--> internships and practicum
  13. Define a mentor or developmental coach.
    a coworker who teaches a new employee the unwritten rules and fosters occupational development, for example
  14. Mentor-protege relationships develop __ like other relationships. 

    Being a mentor helps middle-age workers achieve __. 

    It is also important to __ and __

    It also enhances __
    over time, through stages


    activate transformational leadership skills; promote positive attitudes at work

    career levels
  15. __ and __ have an especially important need for mentors.
    women and minorities
  16. Culture conscious mentoring
    understanding how an organization's culture affects employees and building those assumptions and behaviors into mentoring of the situation
  17. Quality of mentoring matters. Why?
    speed mentoring is a trend
  18. Job Satisfaction

    - is defined as...?

    - the positive feelings that result from an appraisal of one's work (predicted by hope, resilience, optimism, and self-efficacy)
  19. Job satisfaction tends to show __ with age.
    low to moderate increases
  20. Older workers report __ than younger workers. This may be partly because of __. Unhappy workers do what?
    • higher job satisfaction
    • self-selection
    • may quit
  21. Other reasons for increases in job satisfaction with age are __.
    • intrinsic satisfaction
    • good fit
    • lower importance of work
    • finding non-work diversions
    • life-cycle factors
  22. In regards to job satisfaction, what happens with it in these jobs....white collar and blue collar?
    • white collar: increase
    • blue collar: decrease
  23. alienation
    feeling that what one is doing is meaningless, or cannot see the connection between what they do and the final product
  24. What are ways to decrease alienation?
    • trust and perception of fairness and impartiality
    • flexibility
    • development programs
  25. Burnout
    a depletion of a person's energy and motivation, the loss of occupational idealism, and the feeling that one is being exploited
  26. What leads to burnout?
    keeping employee numbers small
  27. Passion
    a strong inclination toward an activity individuals like, value, adn where they invest time and energy
  28. There are two kinds of passion. What are they?
    obsessive: makes it difficult to engage in other activities (higher level of burnout)

    harmonious: freely choose to engage in the enjoyable activity (lower levels of burnout)
  29. Harmonious passion predicts __ at work that predict __. In contrast, obsessive passion predicts __ predicting __.
    • higher levels of satisfaction
    • lower levels of burnout
    • higher levels of conflict
    • higher levels of burnout
  30. Women account for __ of the total workforce.

    Traditionally, women are expected to enter __, __, and __ jobs.

    Women who do enter nontraditional occupations (__ % or less of total # employed) and are successful are viewed __.

    secretarial, teaching, and social work jobs


    more poorly by both men and women
  31. Women in traditional female occupations change jobs how often?
    less often
  32. Women entrepreneurs are doing what?

    Women who leave their jobs do so for two main reasons: __
    starting small businesses at a faster rate than men

    - the organizations are rewarding masculine values of working

    - women may feel disconnected from the workplace
  33. Gender discrimation
    denying a job to someone solely on the basis of whether they are male or female

    It is a major issue in terms of getting jobs, occupational development, and pay

    Women still underrepresented at the top, forced to work harder than men, and have stricter performance standards
  34. Glass ceiling
    the level to which women may rise in a company, but not go beyond

    this is a barrier to promotion women and ethnic minorities often experience
  35. Glass elevator
    in tranditionally female occupations, men may rise much faster than feale counterparts
  36. Equal pay for equal work
    women get paid a fraction of hat men with similar jobs earn (81% of the salary)

    eliminating the salary disparity between men and women has proven more difficult than initially believed
  37. Sexual harassment victims
    usually single or divorced young adult woen

    men victims tend to have more legal charges
  38. Age discrimination
    making employment decisions or denying employment solely on the basis of age
  39. US Age Discrimination of 1986
    protects workers over the age of 40
  40. What are the many ways that age discrimination occurs?
    new physical/ mental performance a job requirement that older adults can't meet

    retirement incentives
  41. Retraining workers

    Rapid changes in the nature of work have resulted in the __. 

    - As a result, there is greater __.
    • displacement of older workers
    • career plateauing
  42. What is career plateauing?
    when there is a lack of promotional opportunity in an organization or a person chooses not to seek advancement

    Thus, learning new skills is essential to maximize one's opportunities
  43. To adapt to the effects of the global economy and an aging work force, many corporations provide __.

    __ are very important; in-house courses as well.
    retraining opportunties for workers

    Lifelong learning
  44. Occupational insecurity
    a growing problem; fear that one may lose one's job is a better predictor of anxienty than the actual likelihood of job loss

    just the possibility can lead to negative physical and psychological health
  45. Peoiple who believe their job is in jeopardy--even if it is not--show levels of stress similar to __.

    What are the coping methods?
    unemployed people

    emotion-focused coping

    problem-focused coping
  46. Unemployed workers have significantly lower... than employed workers
    • mental health
    • life satisfactin
    • marital satisfaction
    • subjective physical health
  47. The effects of job loss vary with __ (3)__
    • age
    • gender 
    • education
  48. __ are more vulnerable due to __.
    • middle-aged men
    • financial responsibilities
  49. The higher the education level, the __. WHy?
    less stress an unemployed person has because they can bounce back
  50. Women report more __ the longer unemployment lasts.
    negative effects
  51. Unemployment rate for many ethnic minority are __ than for european americans.

    It takes __ to find a new job.
    • substantially higher
    • longer
  52. Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
    workers are able to take unpaid leave for their dependents with the right to return to their jobs
  53. Being responsible for dependent care has significant negative effects on caregivers. What are they?
    • work suffers
    • higher level of stress
    • coping difficulties
  54. Less distress occurs if a woman has what?
    good support from their partners and average or high control over their jobs
  55. Backup care
    emergency care for dependent children or adults so the employee does not need to lose a day of work when the usual care is unavailable

    Growing need: workplace care centers are becoming more common

    Family friendly companies--supervisor's approach and benefits
  56. Retirement is largely a development of the __ and is still evolving. 

    Changing conceptions of work are resulting in changing coneptions of retirement. 
    - Retirement can be __ or __
    • 20th century
    • crisp
    • blurred
  57. Crisp retirement
    making a clean break from employment by stopping work entirely
  58. Blurred retirement
    repeatedly leaving and returning to work, with some periods of unemployment
  59. Why do people retire?
    • most people retire because they choose to
    • - feel financially secure
    • - health probz
    • - buyout package
    • - laid off, furloughed, dismissed
  60. When is retirement better?
    if the person feels that their goals have been met
  61. gender differences in retirement
    married women's decision to retire is predicted most by her husband's health status or number of dependents
  62. New patterns of personal involvement must be developed in the context of __ and __ in retirement.
    changing roles and lifestyles
  63. Most people are satisfied with their retirement, as long as they hve __
    • financial security
    • health
    • a supportive network of fam and friends
  64. The relation between health and retirement is complex. If retirement is forced, __
    poorer physical and mental health
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Chapter 12: Work, Leisure, and Retirement
2016-05-04 23:59:44
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