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Work is a source for friends and often spouses/ partners.
Specific occupation doesn't __
affect the workers' need to derive meaning from work. (money--> necessities; personal growth)
Four meanings that describe work
- developing self
- union with others
- expressing self
- serving others
corporate executive with better personal-mission alignment care more about employees' happiness, job satisfaction, and emotional well-being
alignment of an executive's personal intentions and their firm's missions
career construction theory
people build careers through their own actions that result from the interface of their own personal characteristics and the social context
Two theories of occupational choice
Holland's personality type theory
social cognitive career theory
Holland's personality-type theory
choose occupations to optimize person-occupation fit
six personality types that represent different combinations have been identified (investigative, social, realistic, artistic, conventional, enterprising)
Social cognitive career theory
career choice is the result of the application of Bandura's social cognitive theory, especially self-effficacy
There are four factor and six factor versions of which theory?
social cognitive career theory
What are the variables of social cognitive career theory
- outcome expectation (what you think will happen)
- choice goals (what you want to achieve)
People have expectations about what?
What happens to these expectations?
what they want to become and when they hope to get there
they change as the result of changes in interests, the dream not being a good fit, discrimination, lack of opportunity, lack of skills
Milennials vs baby boomers
Millennials are more likely to change jobs--cynicism and distrust in organizaiton
They value innovation and teamwork more than baby boomers
the realization that what you learn in the classroom does not always transfer directly into the "real world" and does not represent all that you need to know
ex: nursing and teaching--> internships and practicum
Define a mentor or developmental coach.
a coworker who teaches a new employee the unwritten rules and fosters occupational development, for example
Mentor-protege relationships develop __ like other relationships.
Being a mentor helps middle-age workers achieve __.
It is also important to __ and __
It also enhances __
over time, through stages
activate transformational leadership skills; promote positive attitudes at work
__ and __ have an especially important need for mentors.
women and minorities
Culture conscious mentoring
understanding how an organization's culture affects employees and building those assumptions and behaviors into mentoring of the situation
Quality of mentoring matters. Why?
speed mentoring is a trend
- is defined as...?
- the positive feelings that result from an appraisal of one's work (predicted by hope, resilience, optimism, and self-efficacy)
Job satisfaction tends to show __ with age.
low to moderate increases
Older workers report __ than younger workers. This may be partly because of __. Unhappy workers do what?
- higher job satisfaction
- may quit
Other reasons for increases in job satisfaction with age are __.
- intrinsic satisfaction
- good fit
- lower importance of work
- finding non-work diversions
- life-cycle factors
In regards to job satisfaction, what happens with it in these jobs....white collar and blue collar?
- white collar: increase
- blue collar: decrease
feeling that what one is doing is meaningless, or cannot see the connection between what they do and the final product
What are ways to decrease alienation?
- trust and perception of fairness and impartiality
- development programs
a depletion of a person's energy and motivation, the loss of occupational idealism, and the feeling that one is being exploited
What leads to burnout?
keeping employee numbers small
a strong inclination toward an activity individuals like, value, adn where they invest time and energy
There are two kinds of passion. What are they?
obsessive: makes it difficult to engage in other activities (higher level of burnout)
harmonious: freely choose to engage in the enjoyable activity (lower levels of burnout)
Harmonious passion predicts __ at work that predict __. In contrast, obsessive passion predicts __ predicting __.
- higher levels of satisfaction
- lower levels of burnout
- higher levels of conflict
- higher levels of burnout
Women account for __ of the total workforce.
Traditionally, women are expected to enter __, __, and __ jobs.
Women who do enter nontraditional occupations (__ % or less of total # employed) and are successful are viewed __.
secretarial, teaching, and social work jobs
more poorly by both men and women
Women in traditional female occupations change jobs how often?
Women entrepreneurs are doing what?
Women who leave their jobs do so for two main reasons: __
starting small businesses at a faster rate than men
- the organizations are rewarding masculine values of working
- women may feel disconnected from the workplace
denying a job to someone solely on the basis of whether they are male or female
It is a major issue in terms of getting jobs, occupational development, and pay
Women still underrepresented at the top, forced to work harder than men, and have stricter performance standards
the level to which women may rise in a company, but not go beyond
this is a barrier to promotion women and ethnic minorities often experience
in tranditionally female occupations, men may rise much faster than feale counterparts
Equal pay for equal work
women get paid a fraction of hat men with similar jobs earn (81% of the salary)
eliminating the salary disparity between men and women has proven more difficult than initially believed
Sexual harassment victims
usually single or divorced young adult woen
men victims tend to have more legal charges
making employment decisions or denying employment solely on the basis of age
US Age Discrimination of 1986
protects workers over the age of 40
What are the many ways that age discrimination occurs?
new physical/ mental performance a job requirement that older adults can't meet
- Rapid changes in the nature of work have resulted in the __.
- As a result, there is greater __.
- displacement of older workers
- career plateauing
What is career plateauing?
when there is a lack of promotional opportunity in an organization or a person chooses not to seek advancement
Thus, learning new skills is essential to maximize one's opportunities
To adapt to the effects of the global economy and an aging work force, many corporations provide __.
__ are very important; in-house courses as well.
retraining opportunties for workers
a growing problem; fear that one may lose one's job is a better predictor of anxienty than the actual likelihood of job loss
just the possibility can lead to negative physical and psychological health
Peoiple who believe their job is in jeopardy--even if it is not--show levels of stress similar to __.
What are the coping methods?
Unemployed workers have significantly lower... than employed workers
- mental health
- life satisfactin
- marital satisfaction
- subjective physical health
The effects of job loss vary with __ (3)__
__ are more vulnerable due to __.
- middle-aged men
- financial responsibilities
The higher the education level, the __. WHy?
less stress an unemployed person has because they can bounce back
Women report more __ the longer unemployment lasts.
Unemployment rate for many ethnic minority are __ than for european americans.
It takes __ to find a new job.
- substantially higher
Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993
workers are able to take unpaid leave for their dependents with the right to return to their jobs
Being responsible for dependent care has significant negative effects on caregivers. What are they?
- work suffers
- higher level of stress
- coping difficulties
Less distress occurs if a woman has what?
good support from their partners and average or high control over their jobs
emergency care for dependent children or adults so the employee does not need to lose a day of work when the usual care is unavailable
Growing need: workplace care centers are becoming more common
Family friendly companies--supervisor's approach and benefits
Retirement is largely a development of the __ and is still evolving.
Changing conceptions of work are resulting in changing coneptions of retirement.
- Retirement can be __ or __
making a clean break from employment by stopping work entirely
repeatedly leaving and returning to work, with some periods of unemployment
Why do people retire?
- most people retire because they choose to
- - feel financially secure
- - health probz
- - buyout package
- - laid off, furloughed, dismissed
When is retirement better?
if the person feels that their goals have been met
gender differences in retirement
married women's decision to retire is predicted most by her husband's health status or number of dependents
New patterns of personal involvement must be developed in the context of __ and __ in retirement.
changing roles and lifestyles
Most people are satisfied with their retirement, as long as they hve __
- financial security
- a supportive network of fam and friends
The relation between health and retirement is complex. If retirement is forced, __
poorer physical and mental health