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Chemical energy feed on organic carbon source
Chemical energy feed on CO2 carbon source
Use light energy feed on organic carbon source
Use light energy feed on CO2 carbon source
What is the purpose of the Kreb's cycle?
the purpose of the Kreb's cycle is to breakdown pyruvic acid to conenzyme NADH, FADH2 to operate electron transport chain to produce ATP.
What do you start with and end with Kreb's cycle?
Start with 2 pyruvic acids and end with 2 ATP, 2 FADH2, and 6 NADH
Does oxygen have to be present in the Kreb's cycle?
Oxygen is needed
Two types of Fermentation
- Fermentation is anaerobic and there are two types - Lactic acid and alcohol fermentation
- Lactic acid fermentation starts with pyruvic acid and ends with lactic acid NAD+ and NADP+ is generated and can enter another round of glycolysis. (Homo-lactic - streptococcus, lactobacillus)
- Alcohol fermentation starts with pyruvic acid and ends with CO2 and ethanol. (Hetero lactic - organism produce lactic acid and alcohol acid)
- Release energy from sugar or another organic molecules. Amino acid, organic acid, purines and pyrimidines
- Do not require oxygen
- Do not require Kreb's cycle or electron transport chain
- Use organic molecule synthesized in the cell as the final electron acceptor
- Produce only small amount of ATP
Purpose of fermentation
to ensure a steady supply of NAD+ or NADP+, so that glycolysis can continue recycle of NADH or NADPH
If oxygen is not present during glycolysis, what can some cells do?
- Anaerobic respiration.
- Limited form of Kreb's cycle in anaerobic condition.
- Only parts of Kreb's cycle function meaning lower yield of ATP
What anaerobic respiration start with and what do you end with?
- Starts with pyruvic acid and ends small amount of ATP.
- Final electron acceptor is Nitrate, sulfate and carbornate
- Anaerobic respiration by bacteria using nitrate (NO3-) and sulfate as final acceptor is essential for the nitrogen and sulfur cycle that occurs in nature