EVOLUTION REVIEW 2

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  3. What is the fossil record?
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  4. FILL IN THE BLANK: 
    Species that still exist are referred to as being _______.
    EXTANT.

    EXAMPLE: HUMANS ARE EXTANT.
  5. FILL IN THE BLANKS: 
    Over 99% of all species that have lived on Earth have become _________, which means ____ _____ ____ ____ _____.
    Over 99% of all species that have lived on Earth have become extinct, which means that the species has died out.
  6. Most fossils form in what type of rock?
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  7. FILL IN THE BLANK: 
    Hypotheses about Earth’s early history are based on a relatively ______________ amount of evidence.
    SMALL

    Gaps and uncertainties make it likely that scientific ideas about the origin of life will change.
  8. TRUE OR FALSE?
    Earth's early atmosphere contained oxygen.
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  10.  FILL IN THE BLANKS:
     ___________________years ago:
    Earth cooled. Rocks formed.   

    ___________________years ago:
    Earth surface cooled enough for water to remain a liquid.
    4.8 billion years ago: Earth cooled. Rocks formed.  

    3.8 billion years ago: Earth surface cooled enough for water to remain a liquid.
  11. FILL IN THE BLANK: 
    Evidence suggests that ____________________years after Earth had liquid water, cells similar to modern bacteria were common.
    • Evidence suggests that
    • 200–300 million years after Earth had liquid water, cells similar to modern bacteria were common.
  12. FILL IN THE BLANK: 
    _______________years ago:
    Unicellular prokaryotic organisms resembling modern bacteria evolved.  

    Proof of this is found in ______________.
    • 3.5 Billion years ago:
    • Unicellular prokaryotic organisms resembling modern bacteria evolved.  

    Proof of this is found in microfossils.
  13. FILL IN THE BLANK:  

    ____________years ago: photosynthetic bacteria began to pump oxygen into the oceans.
    2.2 billion years ago: photosynthetic bacteria began to pump oxygen into the oceans.
  14. WHAT IS THE ENDOSYMBIOTIC THEORY?
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  15. How many extinction evens have occurred in Earth’s past?
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  16. FILL IN THE BLANKS: Paleontologists determine the age of fossils using ___________________
                    or
    ___________________
    • Paleontologists determine the age of fossils using
    • relative dating
    • or
    • radioactive dating.
  17. DEFINE RELATIVE DATING
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  18. WHAT IS AN INDEX FOSSIL?
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  19. DEFINE RADIOACTIVE DATING.
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  20. NAME THE FOUR BASIC DIVISIONS OF GEOLOGICAL TIME.
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  21. GEOLOGICAL TIME STARTS WITH WHAT ERA AND COVERS HOW MUCH OF EARTH’S HISTORY?
    Geologic time begins with Precambrian Time, which covers about 88% of Earth’s history.
  22. Geologists divide the time between Precambrian time and the present into three eras.
    NAME THE THREE!
    • Geologists divide the time between Precambrian time and the present into three eras:
    • Paleozoic Era
    • Mesozoic Era
    • Cenozoic Era
  23. DEFINE SPECIES
    A group of organisms that can naturally reproduce and have offspring.
  24. DEFINE THEORY
    In science, a theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, inferences, and tested hypothesis.
  25. FILL IN THE BLANK: 
    Both Darwin & Lamarck thought that living things change so that they have a better chance of _____________________ in their environment.
    Both Darwin & Lamarck thought that living things change so that they have a better chance of SURVIVING in their environment.
  26. FILL IN THE BLANK: 
    Both Darwin & Lamarck agreed that living things on this planet were ___________and had changed gradually over time, were still changing, and would keep_____________.
    Both Darwin & Lamarck agreed that living things on this planet were RELATED and had changed gradually over time, were still changing, and would keep CHANGING.
  27. DEFINE POPULATION
    Groups of interbreeding organisms belonging to the same species that live in the same region at the same time.
  28. DEFINE VARIATION OF TRAITS
    The phenotype and genotype differences among individuals in a population.
  29. TRUE OR FALSE:
    Darwin believed that when it came to VARIATION OF TRAITS:

    INDIVIDUALS: are fixed and unchanging. POPULATIONS: capable of transformation.
    • TRUE!
    • WHEN REFERENCING VARIATION OF TRAITS,DARWIN BELIEVED:  

    INDIVIDUALS: are fixed and unchanging. POPULATIONS: capable of transformation. 

    BECAUSE THE POPULATION HAS A VARIATION OF TRAITS WITHIN ITS GENE POOL.
  30. TRUE OR FALSE:
    Lamarck believed that when it came to VARIATION OF TRAITS:

    IDENTICAL: characteristics in all members.
    INDIVIDUALS: capable of transformation, driven by need.
    • TRUE!
    • WHEN REFERENCING VARIATION OF TRAITS,LAMARCK BELIEVED:

    IDENTICAL: characteristics in all members. INDIVIDUALS: capable of transformation, driven by need.

    REMEMBER: GIRAFFE’S NECK STRETCHING TO REACH FOOD.
  31. DEFINE HEREDITY
    The passing of traits from parents to their offspring.
  32. DEFINE DARWIN’S DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION PRINCIPLE.
    A principle that each living species has descended, with CHANGES, from other species, over time.
  33. DEFINE LAMARCK’S ACQUIRED TRANSMISSION PRINCIPLE
    The ACQUIRED trait is passed on to the offspring.  

    The result was the original population plus the modified population.
  34. DEFINE SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST
    Organisms that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce.
  35. DEFINE FITNESS
    The ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment.
  36. DEFINE ADAPTATION
    Any inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival.
  37. WHAT WAS LAMARCK’S THEORY FOR SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST?
    He proposed that interactions of organisms and environment drove the process of evolution. 

    He hypothesized that every organism was continually striving for greater complexity.
  38. TRUE OR FALSE: 
    DARWIN BELIEVED VARIATIONS WERE RANDOM.
    • TRUE!
    • Darwin believed that variations were random.

    Organisms that POSSESSED traits that increased their fitness enabled the organism to survive and these traits were passed on.
  39. WHAT DID LAMARCK HYPOTHESIS WHEN HE DESCRIBED HOW ORGANISMS ADAPT TO THEIR ENVIRONMENT?
    • Lamarck hypothesized the theory of use and disuse.
    • Individual organisms were able to change and adopt and survive as needed.
    • If an organism needed to adopt to the environment, it did.
  40. DARWIN & LAMARCK AGREED ON FOUR POINTS ABOUT EVOLUTION.
    NAME ONE OF THEM.
    1. Both thought that life had changed gradually over time and was still changing.

    2. Living things change to be better suited and adapted to their environments.

    3. All organisms are related.

    4. Life evolved from fewer simpler organisms to large numbers of more complex organisms.
  41. DEFINE NATURAL SELECTION.
    Any characteristic of an individual that allows it to survive to produce more offspring will eventually appear in every individual of the species, simply because those members will have more FITNESS.
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Author:
MrB
ID:
319895
Filename:
EVOLUTION REVIEW 2
Updated:
2016-05-08 06:54:26
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EVOLUTION REVIEW
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EVOLUTION REVIEW 2
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EVOLUTION REVIEW 2
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