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What is pleural effusion and what are the two types?
- Excess pleural fluid caused by disease
- Transudate: fluid that has passed through a membrane
- high fluidity, low solid content (clear, <)
- result of physical deformation
- Exudate: fluid that has escaped vessels
- high solid content (cloudy, >)
- result of infection (WBCs, pus, etc)
What is ascites? What is normally the cause? What characteristics would you expect from the fluid?
- Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity (around intestines)
- Liver disease
- Inflammatory cells, elevated protein
What is peritonitis? Primary vs secondary?
- Peritonitis: inflammatory condition of the peritoneum MEMBRANE
- Primary: infection spread from blood and lymph nodes
- Secondary: perforated organ, surgery, trauma, loss of bowel integrity, etc
What is CAPD? Describe it
- Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis
- Fluid is injected into the pertinoeal cavity and then removed (exchange of salts, water, waste) in lieu of functioning kidneys
- *break in the skin increases risk of contamination
How is peritonitis diagnosed? Common players?
- 2/3 of... Cloudy dialysate, Abdominal pain, Positive blood culture from dialysate
- skin flaura (Staph epidermidis, Staph aureus, Streptococci, Candida, etc)
Normal vol of pericardial fluid vs infections + normal agents?
- Normal: 15-20mL
- Infection: can reach 500mL (stress on heart)
- agents: viruses
What is myocarditis? typical players?
- Inflammation of heart MUSCLE that can accompany pericarditis
- *inflammatory response worsens effects
- agents: coxackie virus, echoviruses, adenovirus