CR Angle and Centering

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  1. PA Chest
    • CR ┴
    • Midline of body
    • T7 ( 7 - 8" below vertebral prominens
  2. Lateral Chest
    • CR ┴
    • Mid-thorax
  3. AP Lordotic chest
    • Midline of body
    • 3 - 4" below jugular notch
  4. Lateral Decubitus Chest
    • CR Horizontal
    • Midline of body
    • T7
  5. Soft Tissue Neck Lateral
    • C6/C7 - 1/2 way between jugular notch and thyroid cartilage
  6. Soft Tissue Neck AP
    • T1/T2 - 1" above jugular notch
  7. Upright KUB
    • Midline of body
    • 2" above iliac crest
  8. KUB supine
    • Midline of body
    • At level of Iliac Crest
  9. Left Lateral Decub Abdomen
    • Midline of body
    • 1 - 2" above iliac crest
  10. Fingers
    • PIP joint
  11. Thumb ( Oblique, Lateral, AP )
    • 1st MCP joint
  12. AP Axial Thumb
    Modified Robert's Method
    • 15° toward wrist
    • 1st CMC joint
  13. PA Stress Thumb
    Folio Method
    • 1/2 way between 1st CMC joints
  14. Hands
    • 3rd MCP joint
  15. AP Oblique Bilateral Hand
    Norgaard
    Ball Catchers
    • 1/2 way between both hands
    • at level of 5th MCP joint
  16. Wrists
    • Mid-carpal Area
  17. Scaphoid PA
    • 15° toward elbow
    • 3/4" distal to radial syloid process ( center at snuff box )
  18. Modified Stetcher Method
    • 3/4" distal to radial styloid procesc ( center at snuff box )
  19. Carpal Tunnel
    Gaynor Hart
    • 25 - 30° to palm of hand
    • 1.5" distal to base of 3rd metacarpal
    • ( center to center of palm )
  20. Carpal Bridge
    • 45° to long axis of forearm
    • 1.5" proximal to wrist joint
  21. Forearm
    • mid-forearm
  22. Elbow
    • Mid-elbow
  23. Elbow - Acute Flexion
    1.

    • ┴ to humerus
    • mid-way between epicondyles of distal humerus

    2.

    • ┴ to forearm
    • 2" proximal to olecranon process
  24. Coyle Method
    Radial Head

    • 45° toward shoulder along axis of humerus
    • Center to radial head

    Coronoid process

    • 45° away from shoulder along axis of humerus
    • centered to mid elbow joint
  25. Radial Head Laterals
    • mid-elbow
  26. Humerus-  Internal or External Rotation
    • Mid-humerus
  27. AP Shoulder Internal or External Rotation
    • 1" inferior, slightly lateral to coracoid process
  28. Transthoracic Shoulder
    • surgical neck of humerus of shoulder closest to IR
  29. Scapular Y / Lateral Oblique Shoulder
    • Shoulder joint
  30. Inferiorsuperior Axiolateral Shoulder
    Lawrence Method
    • 25 - 30° medial from = with long axis of body
    • Centered horizontally through axilla
  31. PA Shoulder
    Hobbs Modification
    • Glenohumerol joint
  32. AP Shoulder Oblique
    Grashey Method
    • glenohumerol joint ( 2" inferior, 1" medial from acromion process )
  33. Tangential Intertubercular Groove
    Fisk Modification
    • 10 - 15° downward from horizontal
    • centered to groove area
  34. Supraspinatous Outlet
    Neer Method
    • 10 - 15° caudad
    • Centered to pass through superior margin of humeral head
  35. AP Apical Oblique Axial Shoulder
    Garth Method
    • 45° caudad
    • Center to shoulder joint
  36. AP Scapula
    • Mid-scapula
  37. Lateral Scapula
    • Mid-vertebral border of scapula
  38. AP Clavicle
    • Mid-clavicle
  39. Axial Clavicle
    • 15 - 30° caudad
    • Mid-clavicle
  40. AC Joints without or without weights
    • 1/2 way between both clavicles at level of clavicles
  41. Toes
    • MTP of joint of interest
  42. Curled Toes
    • 10° towards Heel
    • MCP of toe of interest
  43. AP Foot
    • 10° towards heel
    • Base of 3rd metatarsal
  44. Oblique and Lateral Foot
    • base of 5th metatarsal
  45. Plantodorsal Calcaneus
    • 40° cephalad / towards knee
    • base of 3rd metatarsal
  46. Lateral Calcaneus
    • 1" inferior to medial maleolus
  47. AP or Mortise Ankle
    • 1/2 way between malleoli
  48. Lateral Ankle
    • medial malleolus
  49. AP or Lateral Tib-fib
    • Mid tib-fib
  50. AP knee
    • 3 - 5° cephalad
    • mid-knee
    • 1/2" distal to apex of patella
  51. Lateral Knee
    • 5 - 7° cephalad
    • mid-knee
    • 1" distal to medial epicondyle
  52. Weight bearing knee
    • 1/2 way between knees
  53. PA Axial Knee
    Tunnel View
    Camp Coventry
    • Pt. Prone
    • Knee flexed 45°
    • CR ┴ to lower leg
    • centered to knee
  54. PA Axial Knee
    Tunnel View
    Hlomblod
    • Pt. "on all fours"
    • Knees bent 60 - 70°
    • CR ┴ to lower leg
    • centered to knee
  55. AP Axial Knee
    Tunnel View
    Beclere Method
    • Pt. Supine
    • Knee flexed 45°
    • ┴ to lower leg
    • 1/2" distal to apex of patella
  56. PA Patella
    • centered to patella
  57. Lateral Patella
    • centered between patella and femur
  58. Sunrise
    • Pt. Supine
    • Knee flexed 45°
    • CR 10 - 15° from = with lower leg
    • Centered to shoot straight through patellofemoral space
  59. Lower femur AP and Lateral
    • center to midline of femur
  60. AP or Lateral Hip or AP upper femur
    • 1 - 2" medially, 3 - 4" distally from ASIS
  61. Danelius-Miller
    • Centered to greater trochanter
  62. SI Joint AP Axial
    • 30° for males
    • 35° for females
    • 1/2 way between ASIS and Pubic Symphysis
  63. LPO / RPO SI Joints
    • 1" medial from upside ASIS
  64. AP Pelvis
    • Midline of body
    • Top of film 1.5" above iliac crest
  65. Taylor Method
    • 20 - 35° for males
    • 30 - 45° for females
    • center to level of greater trochanters
  66. Pelvic Inlet
    • 40° caudad
    • midline of body
    • At level of ASIS
  67. Lateral C-spine
    • upper level of thyroid cartilage
    • mid-neck
  68. Odontoid
    • centered straight through center of open mouth
  69. AP Axial C-spine
    • 15 - 20° cephalad
    • center to lower margin of thyroid cartilage
    • top of film above EAM
  70. RPO / LPO Axial C-spine
    • 15 - 20° cephalad
    • lower thyroid cartilage
    • mid-neck
  71. Swimmers C-spine
    • ┴ ( or a tiny bit caudad )
    • 1" above jugular notch
    • mid-neck
  72. Judd Method ( odontoid )
    • Pt. PA, MML ┴ to IR
    • 1" inferior to mastoid tips
  73. AP T-spine
    • T7 ( 3 - 4" below jugular notch )
    • midline of body
  74. Lateral T-spine
    • T7 ( 7 - 8" below vertebra prominens )
  75. Swimmers T-spine
    • ┴ ( or just a bit caudad )
    • center right at jugular notch
  76. AP L-spine
    • 1" above iliac crest
    • mid-line of body
  77. AP Axial L-spine ( upshot )
    • 30° cephalad for males
    • 35° cephalad for females
    • At level of ASIS
    • mid-line of body
  78. L-spine Oblique ( RPO / LPO )
    • Pt. obliqued 45°
    • 1 1/2" above iliac crest
    • 2" medial from upside ASIS
  79. Lateral L-spine
    • 1 1/2" above iliac crest
  80. L-spine cone down
    • 5 - 8° caudad
    • 1 1/2" inferior to iliac crest
    • 2" posterior from ASIS
  81. AP Axial Sacrum
    • 15° cephalad
    • 1/2 way between ASIS and pubic symphysis
    • midline of body
  82. AP Axial Coccyx
    • 10° caudad
    • 1/2 way between ASIS and pubic symphysis
    • midline of body
  83. Lateral sacrum & coccyx
    • 2" anterior from posterior sacral surface
    • 1" distal from ASIS
  84. RAO Sternum
    • 1/2 way between jugular notch and xiphoid process
    • 1" towards upside shoulder
  85. Lateral Sternum
    • 1/2 way between jugular notch and xiphoid process
  86. PA SC Joints
    • 3" inferior to vertebra prominens
  87. RAO / LAO Oblique SC Joints
    • 3" below vertebra prominens
    • 1 - 2" lateral towards upside shoulder
  88. AP Axial Skull
    Townes Method
    • 30° caudad
    • mid-line of skull
    • 2 1/2" above glabella
  89. PA Axial Skull
    Caldwell Method
    • 15° caudad
    • mid-line skull
    • center to exit nasion

    Can 15, 20, 25° caudad, 15° is most common
  90. Lateral Skull
    • 2" above EAM
  91. PA Skull
    • Center to exit glabella
  92. SMV Submentovertex
    • 1 1/2" inferior to mandibular symphysis
    • 1/2 way between gonions
  93. PA Axial Skull
    Haas
    • 25° cephalad
    • centered to exit 1 1/2" superior to nasion
    • centered to level of EAMs
  94. Lateral Sella Turcica
    • 3/4" anterior and 3/4" superior to EAM
  95. AP Axial Skull ( for Sella Turcica )
    Townes for sella turcica
    • 30° caudad
    • 1 1/2" above glabella
  96. PA Axial Facial Bones
    Caldwell
    • 15° caudad
    • Centered to exit Nasion

    This will project peterous pyramids into lower 1/3 of orbits
  97. Lateral Facial Bones
    • 1/2 way between outer canthus and EAM
  98. Parietoacanthial Projection Facial Bones
    Waters facial bones
    • exit acanthion
  99. Lateral Nasal Bones
    • 1/2" inferior to nasion
  100. Submentovertex / SMV for Zygomas
    • 1 1/2" inferior to mental syphysis
    • 1/2 way between zygomas
  101. Parieto-orbital
    Rhese Method
    • Centered to exit orbit closest to IR / downside orbit
  102. PA Mandible
    • MSP
    • Centered to exit lips
  103. AP Axial Mandible
    Townes for mandible
    • OML ┴
    • CR 35° caudad
  104. Axiolateral Mandible
    • 25° cephalad
    • centered to mandible closest to IR

    This can be adjusted so that Pt.'s head is tilted 10 - 15° towards IR, and CR adjusted accordingly to complete a 25° cephalad angle to base of jaw.
  105. PA Axial Mandible
    • 25° cephalad
    • Exit acanthion
  106. AP Axial TMJ
    Modified Townes TMJ
    • OML ┴
    • CR 35° caudad
    • Centered to level of TMJ closest to IR
  107. Axiolateral Oblique TMJ
    Modified Law Method TMJ
    • 15° caudad
    • centered to upside EAM
  108. Schuller Method TMJ
    • Pt. head true lateral
    • CR 25° caudad
    • centered 1/2" anterior and 2" superior to upside EAM
  109. Bilateral Axioanterior Oblique Mastoids
    Stenvers Method Mastoids
    • Pt. head 45° to IR ( mastoid against IR )
    • CR 12° cephalad
    • Centered through mastoid closest to IR
  110. Bilateral Mayer Mastoids
    • Pt. head 45° to IR ( mastoid against IR )
    • CR 45° caudad
    • Centered through mastoid closest to IR
  111. Bilateral Owen Mastoid
    • Pt. head 30 - 40° ( mastoid against IR )
    • CR 30 - 40° caudad
    • Centered through mastoid closest to IR

Card Set Information

Author:
Ghoelix
ID:
320331
Filename:
CR Angle and Centering
Updated:
2016-11-07 06:04:09
Tags:
xray beam centering angle
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CR Angle and Centering
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