HBS Final Review
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True or False: The femur is superior to the radius.
False: Superior refers to an object being above the other. The femur in the leg is below the radius in the arm. Therefore, the true statement is the radius is superior to the femur.
What are the main tissues in the human body and their functions?
- Epithelial- covers organs
- Muscle- makes up muscles
- Connective- adipose (fat), blood, bone
- Nervous- includes neurons that create signals in the body
What is gel electrophoresis and what do the results tell us?
DNA samples (negatively charged due to phosphates) are placed in wells, near a negative electrode. Smaller bits are lighter and travel faster towards the positive electrode, so the bits get separated by size.
How do the peripheral nervous system work with the central nervous system?
Sensory- Info from eyes and ears go directly to the brain, while in the lower body, the PNS receives info, sends it to the spinal cord, then to the brain stem, and finally, the brain. If a reaction is needed, the brain sends signals to the spinal cord, back to the PNS, that signals the muscles to move.
How are electrical impulses created in the human body?
The NA+/K+ pumps positive ions out of the membrane, causing the inside to be negative and the outside to be positive.
How do hormones react to target cells?
Target cells have receptors that hormones fit into.
How is the amount of energy in food determined?
A food item is burned to break the chemical bonds in the compounds that make up the food and the energy from the bonds is turned into heat that is captured in water. One calorie is the amount of heat energy that will raise 1 g of water 1ºC.
What is the order that food is digested in your body?
- 1) Salivary glands start breaking down food using amylase.
- 2) Bolus (soft mass of food) travels down pharynx.
- 3) Esophagus pushes food down using peristalsis.
- 4) Food is broken down into nutrients in stomach.
- 5) Bile secreted by liver is stored in gall bladder and passed on to small intestine to break down fats.
- 6) Pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into small intestine.
- 7) Small intestine absorbs nutrients into bloodstream.
- 8) Large intestine absorbs water and produces feces.
What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?
- Type 1: pancreas doesn't produce insulin
- Type 2: pancreas secrets insulin but cells reject it
True or False: A form of adduction is putting your arms at the side of your body.
True: Adduction is movement towards the body.
What are the three major muscle types? Give an example of each.
- Cardiac (involuntary) - heart
- Smooth (involuntary) - small intestine
- Skeletal (voluntary) - biceps
What are the three main blood vessels and their structures ?
- Arteries- three thick walls due to high pressure
- Capillaries- thin walls to allow the exchange of materials
- Veins- three layer walls with valves to prevent backflow as blood is pumped back to the heart
What are the three layers of skin?
- 1) epidermis
- 2) dermis
- 3) hypodermis
What is a comminuted and greenstick break ?
- Comminuted- crushed into several pieces
- Greenstick- incomplete break
True or False: T-Cells trigger the response of B-Cells.
False: B-Cells identify the antigen, then trigger T-Cells that eliminate the infected cells.
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