Anth of Age Readings

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  1. M Shaped Dilemma 

    Study Questions/Data Collection
    • Questionnaires and interviews done in 2007 at suburban day nurseries in Japan
    • focused on working women in japan and levels of fertility associated with the labor force
    • focus on family assistance and how mother or mother in contribute to working womens fertility
  2. M-Shaped Dilemma

    Why is it M Shaped
    M shaped because age when japanese women are in child bearing age labor force goes down, and when child rearing is over it goes up again
  3. M Shaped Dilemma 

    Fertility Trends
    • Japan TFR:
    • 1950s: 2.1
    • 1970's: Further declined 
    • 1990's become one of lowest in the world
    • 2005: TFR 1.26 - japanese government shocked, decided to do public promotion
  4. M Shaped Dilemma

    Fertility Decline Factors
    • increase in education for women, therefore late marriage occurs
    • Workforce participation 1986: Equal Employment Oportunity law established
    • In order to be competitive having a child is hindered
  5. M Shaped Dilemma

    Why is it unique to Japan?
    • workforce participation shows M shaped
    • as workforce goes on M shape tapers 
    • intergenerational households
    • gender based division of labor in home - women expected to care for children and household chores
  6. M Shaped Dilemma

    Results and interpretation
    • focused on family assistance and accessibility from mother and mother in law
    • older generation contribute to younger womens fertility
    • the number of children of working women is influenced by their mothers, but not by their mothers in law 
    • emerging towards matrilocality
  7. Death symbolism in Matrilineal societies

    Characteristics of behaviors study found about ancestors 
    • very protective 
    • dont maintain same pattern as when living 
    • collective relationship
  8. Death symbolism in Matrilineal societies:

    correlation between ancestral spirits and reincarnation
    belief in ancentral spirits likely to believe in reincarnation as well
  9. Death symbolism in Matrilineal societies:

    Why reincarnation in matrilineal? Decent and authority in matrilineal society
    • matrilineal authority and decent line is not the same
    • Procreation has to do with women and not men
  10. Death symbolism in Matrilineal societies:

    Behavior of ancestral spirits
    • Behavior of ancestral spirit is contingent on survivors 
    • no concept of high god, ancestral spirits involved in community responsibility
  11. Death symbolism in Matrilineal

    most important of all behaviors
    • Performing death rights -  If death rights not done properly they wont transition. Having a good funeral puts the ancestors spirit into the afterworld so that they can come back to this
    • Marrying and having a child means reincarnation and having a funeral
    • emphasize continuation of the society and guaranteeing reincarnation through perpetuaton
    • no central authority in matrilineal society
  12. Menopause and the transmission of women’s knowledge
    difference between working and middle class euro americans  - working class more posirve relationsip with mothers than middle class; women angry and disppointment with mothers for not talking about menopause experience

    african american women did not take HRT. Euro more likely to take it for physiological problems and appearance

    african american get knowledge about menopause from mothers, grandmothers, and other mothers. if not told they emphasize strength and ability to cope.

    potential drawback of Af. Am. strength they dont seek out biomedical intervention 

    Middle class E. American rely on biomedicine bc of lack of role models 

    working class more likely to take HRT becuase mothers did.
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Anth of Age Readings
2016-05-23 14:18:54

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