Institutions in Development - Introduction

Home > Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Marie_Andrews on FreezingBlue Flashcards.


  1. What are institutions?
    • "Rules of the game in society" that shape relations behaviours and practices, whereas organisations are more akin to the players of the game or "groups of individuals bound together by some common purpose to achieve objectives"
    • Douglas North, 1991
  2. Who defined institutions?
    Douglas North, 1991
  3. What do bilateral aid analysis needs to consider?
    • The role of history
    • The wider global context
    • The domestic political, economic and social context in the donor country
    • The importance of key individuals and "champions" - leaders and staff
  4. How much was foreign direct investments in 1990?
    In 1990 - around $40 billion
  5. How much was foreign direct investments in 2005?
    In 2005 - around $315 billion
  6. How much was recorded remittances in 1990?
    In 1990 - around $35 billion
  7. How much was recorded remittances in 2005?
    In 2005 - $160 billion
  8. How much was Official Development Assistance in 1990?
    In 1990 - around $40 billion
  9. How much was Official Development Assistance in 2005?
    In 2005 - around $80 billion
  10. What was the pattern for foreign direct investment between 1990 and 2005?
    Continued rising from $40billion to $250billion in 2000 before rapidly decreasing to $160billion in 2002, before rising to $315 billion in 2005
  11. What was the pattern for recorded remittances between 1990 and 2005?
    Slowly increased from $35 billion in 1990, where it increased more rapidly since 2001
  12. What was the pattern for Official Development Assistance between 1990 and 2005?
    Remains fairly stable at around $40 billion level until 2004, where it increased to $80 billion
  13. The Changing world of aid?
    • Harmonisation and coordination among the DAC donors: aid challenged
    • South-south cooperation and the rise of non-DAC donors
    • Multilateralism under threat (except the WB?)
    • The "private sector" in aid: philanthrocapitalism, Corporate Social Responsibility, NGOs, direct giving (peer to peer giving)
    • Changes in the "poverty caseload". Poverty n "middle income countries"
    • The growing role of religiously motivated aid
    • The merging of aid and security
    • The emerging role of climate finance
  14. "Official" Aid Paradigm?
    • Consensus: Make Poverty History, MDGs, SDGs, Paris Declaration, international commitments
    • Talking the same language: partnership, participation, empowerment and citizenship
  15. What did Sachs say in 1992?
    "The idea of development stands like a ruin on the intellectual landscape"
  16. Who said ""The idea of development stands like a ruin on the intellectual landscape"?
    Sachs, 1992
  17. Official aid data: cautionary note:
    • Tied and military aid
    • Debt forgiveness
    • Commitments vs expenditure
    • The growth of "non-traditional aid"
    • Definitional issues
    • Tracing the flows
  18. What does OECD stand for?
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation Development
  19. What does ODA stand for?
    Official Development Assistance
  20. Rethinking Development aid:
    • OECD
    • ODA
    • OECD started to monitor aid flows over half a century ago
    • ODA is a term coined by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to measure aid. The DAC first used the term in 1969
    • Geography of poverty has changed dramatically and so has the finance 
    • Countries like Brazil, China, Korea are growing richer and pulling millions of people out of poverty and using their new wealth to help poorer countries
    • Blurring lines between donors and recipient countrues
    • ODA countries provide $130 billion dollars a year in public development aid
    • 7x now flows as foreign direct investment, bank loans and private philanthropy
    • Gaining increase focus in private development flows - $307 billion in private flows at market terms; $30 billion in private grants; $127 billion by ODA; $10 billion by other official flows
    • Poor countries are improving tax systems and using money to fund their own development programmes
  21. When did OECD start to monitor aid flows?
    Over half a century ago
  22. When did DAC first use the term ODA?
    1969
  23. Who came up with the term ODA?
    ODA is a term coined by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to measure aid. The DAC first used the term in 1969
  24. How has the geography of poverty changed?
    Countries like Brazil, China and Korea are growing richer and pulling millions of people out of poverty and using their new wealth to help poorer countries
  25. How has changing the geography of poverty done?
    Blurred the lines between donors and recipient countries
  26. How much do ODA countries provide a year in public development aid?
    $130 billion
  27. Relationship between ODA money and other donations?
    7x that of ODA countries money, now flows as foreign direct investment, bank loans and private philanthropy
  28. Donation amount from different donors?
    • $307 billion in private flows at market terms
    • $30 billion in private grants
    • $127 billion by ODA
    • $10 billion by other official flows
  29. How much is given in private flows at market terms?
    $307 billion
  30. How much is given in private grants?
    $30 billion
  31. How much is given by ODA?
    $127 billion
  32. How much is given by other official flows?
    $10 billion
  33. How are poor countries funding their own development programmes?
    Improving their tax systems
  34. What was the average remittance price to Africa?
    In July 2011, the average remittance price to Africa was 10.9%
  35. How much are remittances?
    About $60 billion in remittances was sent to the African continent in 2012. More than $7 billion was drained in fees
  36. How much was drained in fees for remittances?
    More than $7 billion was drained in fees
  37. What countries struggle to attract private development?
    Impoverished countries, especially those with war and conflict. They rely much more on aid
  38. What does the ODA track?
    Tracked criteria set decades ago which was organised by major donors
  39. What does the ODA exclude?
    Excludes what most countries spend on peace and security - key economic focus for some countries
  40. What does the OECD measure?
    Modernise and measure how we develop and work with the UN goals
  41. What did the OECD do in the new system?
    • Tracking development progress
    • Updating the definition of ODA - reflects more of an effort to modernise
    • Creating measure of aid to include new types of support - support for adapting to climate change
    • Tightening loan criteria to reflect current market conditions
    • Ways to ensure to go to countries that most need it, spend efficiently and contribute to domestic resources like taxes to move further away from old world of aid
  42. Why is there a war in Syria?
    2011 - Anti-government protests developed into a civil war that has ground to a stalemate, with the Assad government, the so-called Islamic State group, an array of Syrian rebels and Kurdish fighters all holding territory
  43. Who is fighting whom in Syria?
    Government forces concentrated in Damascus and the centre and west of Syria are fighting the jihadists of Islamic State and al-Nusra Front, as well as less numerous so-called "moderate" rebel groups, who are strongest in the north and east. These groups are also battling each other.
  44. Syria - How much has DC pledged over the next 4 years?
    £1.2 billion
  45. Syria - How much has the UK pledged overall to Syria?
    £2.3 billion
  46. How many refugees are Turkey, Jordan and Lebanon housing?
    Housing most of the 4.6 million refugees
  47. Which countries are housing most of the 4.6 million refugees from Syria?
    Turkey, Jordan and Lebanon
  48. How much has the EU pledged for Syria?
    The EU has pledged £2.3 billion this year (2016) and intend to "maintain this level of financing" for 2017
  49. How much has the Syrian Conference been hoping to raise?
    • Attended by 30 world leaders
    • Had been hoping to raise $9billion - a total made up of a UN appeal for $7.7 billion and about $1.3 billion requested by regional host governments
  50. Break down of the target of the $9 billion which is the target to be raised - Syrian Conference
    • UN appeal for $7.7 billion
    • $1.3 billion requested by regional host governments
  51. Where does the UN's 2015 appeal for Syria stand?
    Only 43% of the $2.9 billion pledged to the UN's 2015 appeal has been funded
  52. Largest Syria Response Plan donor nations in 2015
    • US - $315 million
    • UK - $260 million
    • Kuwait - $110 million
    • European Commission - $90 million
  53. Funding and targets of UN appeals for Syria - 2012
    • 2012
    • Received $0.22 billion of $0.35 billion
  54. Funding and targets of UN appeals for Syria - 2013
    Received $0.96 billion of $1.41 billion
  55. Funding and targets of UN appeals for Syria - 2014
    Received $1.12 billion of $2.26 billion
  56. Funding and targets of UN appeals for Syria - 2015
    Received $1.25 billion of $2.89 billion
  57. When was the Paris Declaration?
    2005
  58. How many signatories of the Paris Declaration?
    More than 100 signatories
  59. How many partnership commitments aimed at improving the effectiveness of aid - Paris Declaration?
    56 partnership commitments aimed at improving the effectiveness of aid
  60. How many indicators does the Paris Declaration provide?
    Lays out 12 indicators to provide a measurable and evidence based way to track progress
  61. 5 things that the Paris Declaration provides its basis on?
    • Ownership
    • Alignment
    • Harmonisation
    • Results
    • Mutual Accountability
  62. Why was it hard for developing countries to take the lead? Paris Declaration
    The aid process was still too strongly led by donor priorities and administered through donor channels, making it hard for developing countries to take the lead
  63. What have the reforms led to? -Paris Declaration
    Reforms have led to improved cooperation and more effective
  64. How many countries were in the country evaluation? Paris Declaration
    22 developing countries and 18 donor countries
  65. What was the belief that independent nations needed to develop? Paris Declaration
    • Independent nations just needed "a few years support"
    • Yet they had to build governments from scratch and had little local capacity
  66. What was the Pre-Paris situation like?
    • Donors used to give directly to the people and by-passed national systems
    • Programmes from the West assumed good results would follow if the money was given
  67. What was the post-Paris situation like?
    Harmonised approach and using systems for a long term, will be strengthened and achieve common goals - greater efficiency
  68. What did Post-Paris focus on?
    • Minimise the number of projects to gain effective use of money
    • Should focus at a country level - each country is diverse
    • Should bring on the emerging donors such as China
  69. What did Bernard Wood claim about the Paris Declaration?
    "The idea that you can avoid risk is an illusion"
  70. What % of donor countries had untied their aid after the Paris Declaration?
    Almost 90% of donor countries had untied their aid
  71. What % of developing countries surveyed had improved their systems for managing public funds after the Paris Declaration?
    More than 1/3 of developing countries surveyed had improved their systems for managing public funds
  72. What % of aid is disbursed on schedule?
    1/3 of aid is disbursed on schedule - making it hard to plan ahead
  73. Who organised the Paris Declaration?
    OECD
  74. Paris Declaration - 2005 - more info
    • More than 100 signatories - How can aid be made more effective? Contains 56 partnership commitments aimed at improving the effectiveness of aid. Lays out 12 indicators to provide a measurable and evidence based way to track progress
    • Ownership, alignment, harmonisation, results and mutual accountability
    • The aid process was still too strongly led by donor priorities and administered through donor channels, making it hard for developing countries to take the lead
    • Reforms have led to improved cooperation and more effective
    • Country evaluation - 22 developing countries and 18 donor countries
    • Independent nations just needed "a few years support" - had to build governments from scratch and little local capacity
    • Pre-Paris - donors used to give directly to the people and bypassed national systems
    • Programmes from the West - assumed good results would follow if the money was given
    • Post-Paris - harmonised approach and using systems for long term, strengthened and common goals - greater efficiency
    • Minimise the number of projects to gain effective use of money
    • Should focus at a country level - each country is diverse
    • Should bring on the emerging donors such as China
    • "The idea that you can avoid risk is an illusion" Bernard Wood
    • More than 1/3 of developing countries surveyed had improved their systems for managing public funds; almost 90% of donor countries had untied their aid
    • Progress was still too slow to reach the 2010 goals
    • The predictability of aid flows also remains low (1/3 of aid disbursed on schedule) making it hard to plan ahead

Card Set Information

Author:
Marie_Andrews
ID:
320378
Filename:
Institutions in Development - Introduction
Updated:
2016-05-24 11:19:46
Tags:
Bramble1997
Folders:

Description:
hi
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview