Alcohol

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Author:
LT24
ID:
32089
Filename:
Alcohol
Updated:
2010-09-01 20:37:36
Tags:
effects
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Description:
Lecture #7
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  1. Sedative hypnotics and anxiolytics
    • Alcohol
    • Barbiturates
    • Non-barbiturate hypnotics
    • Anxiolytics
  2. Alcohol that is NOT consumed
    • Isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol)
    • Methyl alcohol (methanol)
  3. Alcohol that is consumed
    • Ethyl alcohol
    • Product of fermentation
  4. Absorption and distribution
    • Oral administration
    • Absorbed in small intestine
    • Easily distributes throughout body
  5. Elimination and excretion
    • Small amounts eliminated unchanged -> sweat, tears, urine, breath
    • Most metabolized in liver by alcohol dehydrogenase
  6. Metabolism
    • Alcohol dehydrogenase
    • Ethanol -> acetaldehyde -> water and CO2
    • Enzyme is rate-limiting (6-8 g/hr)
  7. Oxidation
    • MIcrosomal ethanol oxidizing system
    • Usually only 5-10% of metabolism
    • Up to 50-60% with chronic consumption
    • Role in cross-tolerance to barbiturates
  8. Effects on physiology and behavior
    • No accepted medical use except aseptic
    • Blood circulation
    • Inhibition of ADH
    • Sensory-motor function impaired
  9. Effects on cognition and affect
    • 100-150 mg/100mL -> disinhibition
    • 150-300 -> sedative effects
    • 300 -> stupor
    • 400 -> lethal, respiratory depression
  10. Mechanisms of action
    • Membrane fluidity
    • Membrane bound proteins
    • GABAa receptor
    • NMDA receptor
    • CA neurotransmission
  11. Fetal alcohol syndrome
    • Alcohol readily passes placenta
    • Causes neurotoxic syndrome characterized by neurobehavioral problems
    • Influences brain development during neurogenesis -> decreased brain weight
    • Blockade of NMDA receptors during development triggers apoptosis

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