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What does SnNout mean?
 Test with high sensitivity
 () test rules out diagnosis

What does SpPin mean?
 Test with high spesificity
 (+) test rules in diagnosis

What is false (+)?
Test indicates pt has disease but in reality pt doesn't

What is false ()?
Test indicates pt doesn't have disease but in reality they do have disease

Quantitative research & data analysis
Statistical data analysis

Quantitative research & researcher participation
Researcher not participating

Quantitative research & sample size
Large sample

Quantitative research & questions
Nonprobing, specific research questions

Qualitative research & data analysis
Nonstatistical data analysis

Qualitative research & researcher participation
Researcher is an active participant

Qualitative research & sample size
Small sample

Qualitative research & questions
Probing, global questions

Pretestpost test control group
Outcomes of 2 or more groups formed by random assignment

What is crossover design?
Pt receives both txs (tx & control) with period of no tx

What is case report or case series?
In depth description of pt's condition or rsponse to tx

What is crosssectional study?
Observation  data made 1 time only

What is case control study?
 Retrospective, obserational study
 Pts with disease matched with group with no disease

What is Cohort sutdy?
Longitudinal, observational study  pts followed over time

What is Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)?
 Control group & 1 experimental group
 Control group = no tx/standard tx

Metaanalysis & sample size
It DEC problem of small sample size

What is metaanalysis?
 Combining results of several RCTs
 Estimate of effect size

What is systematic review?
Comprehensive review of medical literature (Ex: Cochane system review)

What % falls within +3 or 3 SD of mean?
99%

What % falls within +2 or 2 SD of mean?
95%

What % falls within +1 or 1 SD of mean?
68%

In bell curve where are most scores?
Near the mean, within 1 SD

What does it mean when "P" = .01?
Higher statistical significance bc there is only 1% probability that the results of study occured by chance

What does it mean when "P" = .05?
Probability that the results obtained would occur by chance 5% of the time & would occur from tx performed 95% of the time

In Statistical significance "P" values are set at what?
.05 or .01

Statistical significance refers to what?
Probability whether or not the results of experiment happened by chance

The bigger the standard deviation, than....?
The more variable the set of scores or data from study

Standard deviation measures what?
Variability of the study

What is double blind test?
Neither experimenter or subject knows who is actually receiving tx

In ABC single case design what does C stand for?
2nd tx or placebo

In ABC single case design what dows B stand for?
1st tx

In ABC single case design what does A stand for?
Baseline measurement

ABC single case design
Adds another independent variable or change, either a different tx or placebo

ABAB design
 Gives more thorough look at application & effect of independent variable or tx/change
 Experimenter can see what happens when the tx is in effect & what happens when it is withdrawn

ABA design
No tx (A) > tx or change (B) > withdrawal of tx or change

In single case study design what does B stand for?
 (+) of a specific treatment
 Applied over a period of time

In single case study design what does A stand for?
Period of NO treatment or no changes for pt

What is a single case study design?
When 1 pt, 1 PT, 1 PT department is studied over time

What is included in written informed consent?  4
 Info about general nature of what is to take place
 Any risks to individual & what will be done to minimize the risk
 Possible benefits
 Ethical disclosure

What does prevalence mean?
# of existing cases (new & preexisitng)

What does incidence mean?
# of new cases

What is epidemiology?
Study of distribution & causes of health related situations in populations & application of information to control health problems

When is Chi square test used?  2
 Genetics
 Population statistics

What does nonparametric mean?  3
 Not based on population parameters:
 Normal  ordinal data
 Abnormal  interval/ratio

Is Chi square test parametric or nonparametric?
Nonparametric

What is Chi square test?
Tells researcher if the observed pattern, trait or distribution is different than what would have been expected by chance alone.

What does ANOVA do?
 Can analyze 2 or more independent variables & any interaction between the varibales
 EX: Researcher looks to determine if there is a difference among 3 exercise protocols that INC ROM. ANOVA will answer the ? as to whether there was a significant difference among 3 protocols

Is ANOVA parametric or nonparametric?
Parametric

What is Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) mean?
Statistical test used to determine if there are differences among 3 or MORE groups

Ttest and variables
Ttest only used if there is 1 dependent & 1 independent variable

What does parametric test mean?
 Test of significance based on interval or ratio data
 Population normally distributed with homogeneity of variance
 P = 0.05

Is Ttest parametric or nonparametric?
Parametric

What is it called when 1 group is tested 2 times?
Pretest Posttest design

What is a Ttest?  2
 Statistical test used to determine if there is a difference between TWO groups:
 2 different groups are matched & tested OR 1 group is tested twice

What is directional hypothesis?
Generalization predicting an expected relationship between variables

What does it mean when null hypothesis is NOT rejected?  2
 No significant difference between groups or treatments
 P value > level of significance

What does it mean when null hypothesis is rejected?  2
 Significant difference was observed between groups or treatments
 P value < or = level of significance

What is null hypothesis?
Made prior to data collection that states or predicts a finding of no significant difference between groups or treatment studies

Specificity in research
Pt will test () for a condition they DO NOT have

Sensitivity in research
Pt will test (+) for a condition they have

What is a dependent variable?
Variable being measured to determine the outcome (ROM)

What is a independent variable?  2
 Variable that is being manipulated by the researcher in the study
 In research it is the treatment administered to the subjects

What is Subjectivity?
Testing format that may differ depending upon the persob grading the test

What is objectivity?
Objective test is designed in a way that regardless of who grades it, the results will always be the same

What is itratester reliability?
Same tester tries to replicate the measurements & obtain similar results with same subjects and pts

What is intertester reliability?
2 or more different testers

What is reliability?
Consistency of the measuring device or procedure

What is validity?
Extent to which a test, instrument, or procedure accurately measures what it is supposed to measure

