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What is Hering's "Law Of Cure"
1) From the top of the body downward
2) From the inside outwards
3) From the most important organs to the least important.
4) Cure happens in reverse order to the onset of symptoms.
What does "VICARIOUS ELIMINATION" mean?
This is when main organs of elimination become congested, the body therefore will detoxify itself via an alternative route (vicarious elimination).
E.g. when the skin takes over from the bowel in conditions such as acne
What is 'autotoxaemia'?
Reabsorption of toxic wastes from the bowel. Examples are fermentation and putrefaction.
What is hydrotherapy?
Hydrotherapy is the therapeutic use of water as a healing agent.
What is 'cryotherapy'?
This is the use of very cold water to decrease inflammation and pain, reduce cellular metabolism and promote vasoconstriction.
What is Epsom Salt Baths and why are they beneficial?
Epsom salt baths are a source of magnesium and their main benefit is the removal of acids (lactic acid, for instance) via vasodilation of the skin pores.
They create an alkaline medium within the water (due to high magnesium).
People with regular acidity in their tissues will benefit from regular (3 a week) alkaline baths.
What is the purest form of water that a person can drink?
This is the only water we can guarantee is 100% pure.
TRUE OR FALSE:
YIN is COLD
TRUE OR FALSE:
YANG IS HOT
On the yin/yang chart, which colour represents yin?
On the yin/yang chart, which colour represent yang?
Yin and yang imbalance:
If there is a deficiency of yin (cold), this can cause a relative excess of yang (hot). What would we call this imbalance?
Deficient yin causes a relative excess of yang.
We call the heat 'empty' because it is the emptiness/deficiency of the other (yin) that has caused it.
If there is a deficiency of yang, there is a relative excess of yin.
What would we call this imbalance?
We call the cold 'empty' because it is the emptiness/deficiency of the other (yang) that has caused it.
List some common signs and symptoms of yin deficiency:
- - Low grade fever or feeling of heat in the afternoon
- - Dry throat
- - Night sweats
- - Red peeled cracked tongue
- - Floating empty rapid pulse
What would you suggest to somebody with yin deficiency in regards to diet?
- Eat YIN nourishing foods (i.e. cold promoting) - yoghurt
- - apples
- - pears
- - tomatoes
- AVOID warming foods:
- - Spices
- - Meat
- - Pumpkin
- - Sweet potato
What are the 5 vital substances?
- 1) Qi
- 2) Blood
- 3) Body Fluids
- 4) Essence (Jing)
- 5) Spirit (Shen)
What is the form of Qi that circulates in the body?
- It is called True or Normal Qi (Zhen Qi) and is made up of:
- - Nutritive Qi which flows through the acupuncture channels
- - Defensive Qi which flows mostly between the skin and muscle
True or false: Blood is yin (cold) in nature
True or false: Qi is yang in nature (hot)
True or false: body fluids are Yin (cold) in nature
What is Essence?
- Essence is an extremely condensed form of Qi, and is Yin (cold) in nature. There are 2 types:
- - Pre-heavenly essence (what you are born with)
- - Post heavenly essence (what occurs during the life cycle)
True or false:
Shen (spirit) is yang in nature
How many acupuncture channels are there?
What are the 8 principles?
They are 4 pairs:
- - Exterior | Interior
- - Hot | Cold
- - Full | Empty
- - Yang | Yin
Where is heat normally seen in the body?
Heat is normally seen in the uppermost or superficial body parts i.e skin, blood, muscles, hair etc
List 4 alkaline forming foods
- Soya beans
What foods should Blood Type O avoid, and what foods should they eat more of?
AVOID: Cow's Milk, Wheat, Corn
INCLUDE: Organic beef, rice, walnuts
What foods should Blood Type A's avoid, and what foods should they eat more of?
AVOID: Cow's milk, oranges, bananas
INCLUDE: Peanuts, almonds, lentils
What foods should Blood Type B's avoid, and what foods should they eat more of?
AVOID: Pork, bacon, sweetcorn
INCLUDE: dairy foods, papaya, millet
What foods should Blood Type AB avoid, and what foods should they eat more of?
AVOID: Cow's milk, oranges, bananas
INCLUDE: Cauliflower, cranberry, celery (3 C's)
In homeopathy, how does one prepare a remedy?
By diluting the substance, shaking or banging the vial, and then diluting it again. This process can be done again and again. We call it "succussion and dilution".
*Note: succussion means to shake a solution vigorously.
The higher dilutions, or higher potencies, are diluted hundreds or thousands of times. The more you dilute and success a remedy, the more potent it becomes. In fact, the effect of a very high potency remedy can occasionally be too powerful for a patient in a weakened condition and it is preferable to begin with a lower potency.
In homeopathy, what is potency?
Potency = the strength of a homeopathic remedy. Determined by how many times the remedy has been succussed and diluted during preparation. A number and a letter are associated with the remedy name to indicate which potency scale has been used.
In homeopathy, what are the different scales of potency?
- The different scales of potency are as follows:
- D potencies
- C potencies
- LM potencies
In homeopathy, what are the most common potencies in England?
The most common potencies in England are the C potencies. The most common are:
- - 6C
- - 30C
- - 200C
- - 1000C (1M)
What is the classification of homeopathic potencies on a scale of low to high?
- Lower potency - 1C to 30C
- Middle potency - 30c to 1M
- High potency - above 1M
If somebody is using heavy medication or is in a very sensitive state, there is a special potency called "LM Potency" which can be repeated daily. The bottle is successes before each dose, which slightly increases the potency each time.
In homeopathy, what does "+++ lemons" mean?
A very strong desire for lemons
In homeopathy, what does "- milk" stand for?
The person has an aversion to milk.
In homeopathy, what does ">hot drinks" stand for?
The patient's symptoms are better for having hot drinks.
In homeopathy, what does, "<Alcohol" stand for?
The symptoms are worsened when drinking alcohol.
In homeopathy, remedies come in several forms. They are usually absorbed orally under the tongue but can be applied differently as well. List the different forms below:
- - Liquid Potencies
- - Sucrose Pills
- - Lactose Tablets
- - Ointments
- - Powder
- - Ampoules
In homeopathy, where does Apis come from and what has it been used to treat?
Apis (animal) comes from the honey bee and has been used to treat:
- - Allergies / Anaphylaxis
- - Cystitis
- - Swelling, redness, oedema
- - Burning and stinging pains
- - Endometriosis
In homeopathy, what is Arnica used to treat?
- - Bruising Injuries
- - Muscle soreness
- - Bleeding under the skin
- - After a long run/ marathon
In homeopathy, what is another term for Hypericum and what is this used to treat?
Another name for Hypericum is St John's Wort, and it is a mental nerve remedy. It is used for emotional healing as well as nerve injuries.
It can help:
- - Injury to nerve rich areas - fingers, toenails
- - Depression
- - Anxiety
- - Insomnia
- - Car door injury
What is homeopathic proving?
When a homeopath takes a small dose of a plant and observes the symptoms that they get. These are then the symptoms that the diluted and successes homeopathic preparation is used to treat. It is a testing process.
In TCM, the tongue has 4 distinct areas (back, centre, sides, tip). Without looking at the image, see if you can try and remember which organs are associated with which areas.
In TCM, what do we look for in terms of tongue signs?
- Body Colour
- Spots / lumps/ sublingual veins
In TCM, what are the indicators for different types of tongue shape?
- Tongue-shaped = Normal
- Swollen = Damp, Phlegm
- Thin = Blood deficiency
- Deviated = Wind
- Teeth Marks = Weak digestion
In TCM, what are the indicators for different body colours of the tongue?
- Pale pink = normal
- Red = heat
- Pale & Moist = Yang deficiency
- Pale & Dry = Blood deficiency
- Purple = Blood stasis
- Purple / red = Blood stasis with heat
- Mauve / blue = Blood stasis with cold
In TCM, what are the indicators for coating/ moisture of the tongue?
- Thin white = normal
- Dry yellow = excess heat
- Greasy yellow = damp heat
- No coat = yin deficiency
- Peeled = yin deficiency
- Cracked = yin deficiency
*Note = diagnose by area that the cracks appear in
In TCM, what are the indicators for spots and lumps?
- Red Spots = Heat
- Purple Spots = Blood Stasis
- Raised Lumps = Stagnation
- Purple Sublingual Veins = Blood Stasis
- Yellow Sublingual Veins = Dampness
In TCM, the pulse positions and depths relate to different organs. Please list.
- Superficial = Yang Organs (HEAT)
- Deep = Yin Organs (COLD)
- Positions Nearest The Wrists = Chest
- Positions In The Middle = Epigastrium
- Positions Towards The Elbow = Lower Abdomen
In TCM, what do we assess for with the pulse?
In TCM, what indicators to we gain from speed of the pulse?
- Slow = under 60BPM = Cold/Yang Deficiency
- Relaxed = 60-80 BPM = Normal
- Rapid = 90-120 BPM = Heat
- Racing = Over 120 BPM = Extreme Heat
In TCM, what indicators do we gain from regularity of the pulse?
- Regular = Normal
- Irregularly Regular = Blood Stasis
- Regularly Irregular = *Red Flag = may be a serious heart condition so refer.
- Irregular Force
In TCM, what indicators do we gain from force in the pulse?
- Very forceful = Excess
- Moderate = Health
- Weak = Qi Deficiency
- Thin/Thready/Fine = Blood Deficiency
- Hidden = Extreme Yang Deficiency
In TCM, what indicators do we gain from depth of the pulse?
- Superficial (felt on light touch) = Yin deficiency if weak, or an external pathogen if full
- Middle (felt on moderate touch) = Normal
- Deep (only felt on heavy touch) = Yang deficiency, disease is on the interior
Give some common signs and symptoms of yin deficiency.
Also known as 'cold deficiency', symptoms are:
- - Low grade fever or feeling of heat in the afternoon
- - Dry throat at night
- - Night sweats
- - Malar flush (cheeks)
The tongue is normally red, peeled, cracked and dry, and the pulse is normally floating empty, possibly rapid. (A very YANG condition)
Give 4 common signs and symptoms of Liver Qi stagnation
- Feeling of distension
- Abdominal masses that appear and disappear
*aetiology is anger, frustration and resentment
What naturopathic advice would you give to somebody with liver qi stagnation?
- - Avoid fried foods that burden the liver
- - Eat Qi moving foods - marjoram, crayfish, prawns
- - Regulate emotions (avoid anger and frustration)
Note* liver qi stagnation with yin deficiency may progress into liver yang rising, or extreme liver qi stagnation can progress into liver fire blazing!
Give 4 signs and symptoms of Spleen Qi deficiency.
- Distention after eating
- Weak Limbs
- Loose Stools
- Pale Face
*Note spleen qi deficiency can progress into qi sinking
What advice would you give to somebody with spleen qi deficiency?
- Avoid fried foods
- Eat qi nourishing foods - eggs, potato, pumpkin
- Avoid cold and hard to digest foods - dairy
- Eat regularly in a relaxed environment
In herbal medicine, what does Astringent mean?
Astringent means to cause the contraction of cells and body tissues, it aids the process of 'drying out'.
Astringent herbs promote a feeling of dryness in the mouth, dries out wounds, mucous membranes, reduces excess discharges, tones and strengthens the tissues. First aid treatment for wounds
Please list 3 Astringent herbs. (ARM)
- Raspberry Leaf
In herbal medicine, what does Bitter mean?
Having a sharp, pungent taste or smell.
Bitter herbs trigger production of saliva, digestive juices and bile. They stimulate liver function and detoxification.
Please list 3 Bitter herbs (GBW)
In herbal medicine, how does one make an infusion?
Infusions are for delicate parts of leaves and flowers.
Place the herb in a warm teapot, add boiled water, cover and leave 10-15 minutes, strain and drink.
3 cups daily.
Usual dose - 1-2 heaped tsp per cup.
In herbal medicine, what are tinctures and fluid extracts?
These offer high extraction of chemicals and allow for good patient compliance.
They preserve for 3-5 years
Rapidly absorbed into the blood stream.
Alcohol content is reduced by adding boiling water or removed by simmering. Traditional maceration (soaking in liquid) for 1 lunar month, shaken daily, poured off, pressed.
Fluid extracts are 1:1 (1kg herb to 1 litre alcohol/water) made by cold percolation. Allow greater level of herbs in the daily dose.
In herbal medicine, herb names are always written in Italics. The first word always starts with a Capital letter, and the second word starts in lower case. For example:
(Generic name + descriptive epithet).
Please list the meanings of the following epithets (adjectives):
- 1) officinalis = medicinal
- 2) vulgaris = common
- 3) pratensis = of the meadow
- 4) purpurea = purple
- 5) millefolium = thousand leaved
Give 3 examples of sleep promoting herbs
Sleep promoting herbs are also known as sedatives,
which calm the nerves and promote sleep.
- - Passionflower
- - Skullcap
- - Valerian
What is the herbal approach to IBS?
IBS is treated with nervines
to relax the constricted colon.
nutritive to the nervous system with varied actions (calming, relaxing)
- - Camomile
- - Hops
- - Valerian
- relieve flatulence and gas and promotes digestion
- - Oregano
- - Peppermint
- - Angelica Root
What are the protein requirements for the following age brackets, per kg of their body weight?
Children (age 3-4)
Children (age 9-10)
Adolescents (age 13-14)
Young adult (>19)
- Children (age 3-4) - 1.09g protein per kg of body weight
- Children (age 9-10) - 0.99g protein per kg of body weight
- Adolescents (age 13-14) - 0.95g protein per kg of body weight
- Young adult (>19) - 0.75g protein per kg of body weight
- Elderly - 0.75g protein per kg of body weight
List the 9 essential Amino Acids
( H I M Loves Lauren Put The Turkey Valerie )
What supplements would you advise in pregnancy?
- Folic Acid
- Vitamin B12
What is complete and incomplete protein?
Your body needs 22 types of Amino Acids to function properly. Adults can synthesise 13 of those in the body (non essential AAs) but the other 9 must come through diet (essential AAs). It is these ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS that derive the classification of protein as either complete or incomplete.
Complete proteins - are those that contain all of the Essential AAs in sufficient quantity - these are typically animal-based proteins. E.g. meat, fish, dairy, spirulina, soy
Incomplete proteins - are those that don't contain all Essential Amino Acids in sufficient quantity - and must be supplemented with other protein sources. These include nuts and seeds, legumes, grains, vegetables.
Just because they are incomplete does not make them inferior, though, they just need to be combined to provide the right balance of Essential AAs. Proteins that, in combination, make a complete Amino Acid profile are known as complementary proteins. For example, rice and beans, spinach salad with almonds, hummus and wholegrain pittas.
Give 4 of the Naturopathic Principles (there is 10 in total)
1. Prevention is preferable to cure
2. The root cause is treated, not the branches (symptoms)
3. The individual is unique; each person responds in a different way
4. The person is treated, NOT the disease!
What are nosodes?
In homeopathy, nosodes is when diseased tissue (e.g. Tuberculinum - products of tuberculosis) is used in homeopathic remedies.
What are sarcodes?
In homeopathy, this is when remedies are derived from glandular ssecretions of human, animal or plant origin.
Think S for SECRETIONS, S for SARCODES
What are imponderables?
This is in homeopathy, when remedies are derived from energies e.g. electricity, X rays, sun moon etc.
List the 5 vital substances and whether they are Ying/Yang.
- Qi = YANG
- Spirit (shen) = YANG
- Blood = YIN
- Body Fluids = YIN
- Essence (Jing) =YIN
What is an anti-emetic?
In herbal medicine, this is something that reduces nausea and vomiting.
What are 4 functions of Vitamin A?
- Growth & Development
- Adrenal Hormone Synthesis
What does ORAC stand for?
Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
Give 4 Yin nourishing foods
Give 4 Yang nourishing foods
- Spices (ginger, cayenne)
- Sweet potato
Give 4 Qi nourishing foods
- Sweet potato
(Advise for SPLEEN QI DEFICIENCY - WE WANT TO BUILD THE QI)
Give 4 Qi Moving Foods (advise for Liver Qi Stagnation) - We want to get that Qi MOVING
What is organoleptic testing?
Involving use of the sense organs (smell, taste, texture, sight)
Give 3 forms of FERMENTED SOY