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  1. Second ionization energy
    the energy required to remove a second electron from an already positively charged ion. (Hint: it is difficult to remove an electron from ion with a complete octet)
  2. solving for rate constant (k)
    Find the orders of [A] and [B] to determine the rate. Solve for k.
  3. Free energy change
    (dG) = (dH)-T(dS)

    Make sure that all of the units are the same
  4. Hydrogen bonding
    HF can only form one bond, whereas H2O can form two bonds
  5. Beta decay
    the decay of a neutron into an electron and a proton
  6. Electrolytic cell
    anode is where oxidation occurs

    cathode is where reduction occurs
  7. Fisher projections
    horizontal means sticking out, vertical means back

    mentally rotate the CC bonds to see if they just match up
  8. Solubility
    like dissolves like
  9. Chair conformation hexane
    Axial groups that are bulky will cause more ring strain than if they were equatorial
  10. determining E and Z isomers
    • If the highest priority groups at the ENDs of the double bond are on the same side, it is Z
    • E if they are one opposite sides
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