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Second ionization energy
the energy required to remove a second electron from an already positively charged ion. (Hint: it is difficult to remove an electron from ion with a complete octet)
solving for rate constant (k)
Find the orders of [A] and [B] to determine the rate. Solve for k.
Free energy change
(dG) = (dH)-T(dS)
Make sure that all of the units are the same
HF can only form one bond, whereas H2O can form two bonds
the decay of a neutron into an electron and a proton
anode is where oxidation occurs
cathode is where reduction occurs
horizontal means sticking out, vertical means back
mentally rotate the CC bonds to see if they just match up
like dissolves like
Chair conformation hexane
Axial groups that are bulky will cause more ring strain than if they were equatorial
determining E and Z isomers
- If the highest priority groups at the ENDs of the double bond are on the same side, it is Z
- E if they are one opposite sides
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