01 The History Geography and Winegrowing Regions of Bourgogne

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  1. How much wine is produced in Bourgogne?
    • 186 million bottles (15.5 m cases)
    • 16.67 million cases (200 m bottles)
  2. How much vineyard land is in Bourgogne?
    • 69,120 acres (27,972 hectares)
    • 3% of the vineyards in France
  3. Is there more red or white wine produced in Bourgogne?
    • 63% White, 37% Red
    • Only the Cote de Nuit and Cote de Beaune produce more red than white
  4. What percent of red versus white wine is produced in each Bourgogne region?
    • Chablis: 0%/100%
    • Grand Auxerrois: 39%/61%
    • Chatillonnais:
    • Cote de Nuit: 89%/11%
    • Haute Cote de Nuits:
    • Cote de Beaune: 57%/43%
    • Haute Cote de Beaune:
    • Cote Chalonnaise: 45%/55%
    • Cote-du-Couchois:
    • Maconnais: 15%/85%
  5. How much vineyard land (acres/ha) is in each Bourgogne region?
    • Chablis: 17.5% (12,100/4,897)
    • Grand Auxerrois: 6% (4,150/1,679)
    • Chatillonnais: 0.5% (345/140)
    • Cote de Nuit/Hautes Cotes: 13.5% (9,330/3,776)
    • Cote de Beaune/Hautes Cotes: 21.5% (14,860/6,014)
    • Cote Chalonnaise/Couchois: 16% (11,060/4,476)
    • Maconnais: 25% (17,275/6,991)
  6. How much wine (million bottles) is produced is in each Bourgogne region?
    • Chablis: 37 million bottles
    • Grand Auxerrois: 2
    • Cote de Nuit: 8.5
    • Cote de Beaune: 20
    • Cote Chalonnaise: 9
    • Maconnais: 46
  7. Define climat
    • terroir-based named piece of land
    • unique to Bourgogne
  8. Define lieu dit
    place name for land registered in town hall
  9. How long is each major region in Bourgogne?
    • Chablis: 9 miles
    • Cote de Nuit: 13 miles
    • Cote de Beaune: 18 miles
    • Cote Challonnaise: 26 miles
    • Maconnais: 35 miles
  10. Is Beaujolais considered part of Bourgogne?
    • Pre-revolution: It was included in the Bourgogne province
    • Post-revolution: It is part of the Rhone department (Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes region)

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  11. Name the 3 departments within the Bourgogne-Franche-Comte region containing the Bourgogne AOC
    • Yonne: Chablis
    • Cote d'Or: Cote de Nuit, Cote de Beaune
    • Saone et Loire: Cote Challonnaise, Maconnais

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  12. Relate the ancient history of Bourgogne
    • 52 BC: Romans conquered Gaul
    • 456: Les Burgondes arrived from Scandanavia
    • 534: Franks defeated Les Burgondes
  13. When did wine arrive in Bourgogne?
    • 1300 BC: Phoenicians brought wine
    • 200 BC: Aedui Celts produced wine
    • 52 BC - 400 AD: Romans (hard evidence)
  14. Describe the history of the clergy in Bourgogne
    • 910: Benedictines in Cluny
    • 1098: Cistercians in Citeaux
  15. Who were the black monks and white monks?
    • Black monks: Benedictines (they wore black robes)
    • White monks: Cistercians (break away Benedictines -- wore light gray robes)
  16. Who founded Clos Vougeot?
    Cistercians (1100-1336)
  17. When did the monastaries hold power in Bourgogne?
    587-1789 (111 years after fall of the Roman Empire till the French Revolution)
  18. What is the legacy of the monks in Bourgogne?
    • Cultivation of Pinot Noir and Chardonnay
    • Quality deliniation of the land
  19. Describe the history of royalty in Bourgogne
    • 1363-1477: The Valois Dukes
    • 1693: Louis XIV converts from drinking wine from Champagne to Bourgogne
  20. Describe the "rise and fall" of gamay in Bourgogne
    • 1349: Plague leads to rise (doesn't require as much tending as other grapes)
    • 1395: Duke Philip the Bold issues edict to "uproot the evil of gamay" (but not effective)
  21. Name the first negotiants in Bourgogne
    • 1720: Champy
    • 1731: Bouchard Pere
    • 1750: Chanson
  22. Name 3 impacts the French revolution had on Bourgogne
    • Nationalization and sale of land
    • Institution of "Code Napoleon"
    • Growth of demand for wine
  23. How did Code Napoleon impact Bourgogne?
    • The inheritance law was changed to divide property equally among all children
    • Multiple vineyard owners led to inconsistent quality
    • This is why the key to quality is producer
  24. Provide 2 examples of vinyard fragmentation
    • Clos Vougeot: 90 owners of 125 acres
    • Batart-Montrachet: 49 owners of 17.8 acres
  25. When did vine problems arrive in Bourgogne?
    • 1852: Oidium (powdery mildew)
    • 1878: Phylloxera reached Meursault
    • 1886: Bourgogne permitted grafting to fight phylloxera
  26. What introduced the modern era of Bourgogne?
    1935 implementation of AOC to combat fraud
  27. Define piquette
    • Drink made by adding water to pomace
    • Drunk by vineyard hands
  28. When did wine become affordable to the general French population?
    1700s
  29. When was the most famous vineyard name appended to the village name?
    • In 1847, King Louis-Philippe granted the right to Gevery-Chambertin
    • Exceptions include Les Saint-Georges (it's a PC, not a GC vineyard) and Ladoix-Serrigny (twin hamlets)
  30. When was the first wine auction?
    1859: Hospices des Beaune
  31. When was the first vineyard classification?
    • 1861: carried out by Agricultural Committee of Beaune
    • 1930: boundaries are legally defined
    • 1936: AOC
  32. When was the Napoleonic Code issued?
    1804
  33. Who were les ecorcheurs ("skinners")?
    • Soldiers disbanded after expelling the British in 1453 who terrorized the countryside
    • Famine followed as farmers took refuge in fortified settlements
  34. Name Valois Dukes of Burgundy, when they reigned, and what they did
    • 1363-1404: Philippe the Bold banned manure in vineyards and issued edict of 1395 to oust gamay
    • 1404-1419: John the Fearless allowed King Charles VI to fix zone of Burgundy production
    • 1419-1467: Philippe the Good built Hospices de Beaune as charity hospital for commoners; also issued edict in 1441 to ban gamay)
    • 1467-1477: Charles the Bold
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  35. Define cuesta
    • Spanish for slope
    • Ridge formed by tilted sedimentary rock strata
    • If all strata tilted in same direction, it is said to be homoclinal
  36. Define dip slope
    Gentle slope on other side of the cuesta caused by an erosion-resistant layer
  37. Name 2 types of cuesta
    • Escarpment: steep slope
    • Cliff: sheer slope
  38. Define Bioherm
    Sedimentary rock mass built by marine life such as corals and algae
  39. Distinguish microcrystalline from cryptocrystalline
    very small versus microscopic crystalline structure
  40. Define chert
    • Sedimentary rock composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2) with small crystalline structure
    • Occurs as nodules, layers within limestone, or concretionary masses
    • Dark varieties are called flint
  41. Define schist
    foliated and flaky metamorphic rock
  42. Define granite
    igneous rock (magma that cooled slowly under crust) formed from quartz, feldspar, mica, and hornblende
  43. Define marl
    • mix of lime and clay
    • Lime is calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
  44. Define chalk
    soft limestone comprised of shells of organisms
  45. Define limestone
    • Calcium carbonate-based sedimentary rock
    • Most limestone is organic (e.g., bones, teeth, shells) but it can be inorganic (e.g., stalactites or stalagmites)
    • Define piquette
    • Drink made by adding water to pomace
    • Drunk by vineyard hands
  46. When did wine become affordable to the general French population?
    1700s
  47. When was the most famous vineyard name appended to the village name?
    • In 1847, King Louis-Philippe granted the right to Gevery-Chambertin
    • Exceptions include Les Saint-Georges (it's a PC, not a GC vineyard) and Ladoix-Serrigny (twin hamlets)
  48. When was the first wine auction?
    1859: Hospices des Beaune
  49. When was the first vineyard classification?
    • 1861: carried out by Agricultural Committee of Beaune
    • 1930: boundaries are legally defined
    • 1936: AOC
  50. When was the Napoleonic Code issued?
    1804
  51. Who were les ecorcheurs ("skinners")?
    • Soldiers disbanded after expelling the British in 1453 who terrorized the countryside
    • Famine followed as farmers took refuge in fortified settlements
  52. Name Valois Dukes of Burgundy, when they reigned, and what they did
    • 1363-1404: Philippe the Bold banned manure in vineyards and issued edict of 1395 to oust gamay
    • 1404-1419: John the Fearless allowed King Charles VI to fix zone of Burgundy production
    • 1419-1467: Philippe the Good built Hospices de Beaune as charity hospital for commoners; also issued edict in 1441 to ban gamay)
    • 1467-1477: Charles the Bold
  53. Define cuesta
    • Spanish for slope
    • Ridge formed by tilted sedimentary rock strata
    • If all strata tilted in same direction, it is said to be homoclinal
  54. Define dip slope
    Gentle slope on other side of the cuesta caused by an erosion-resistant layer
  55. Name 2 types of cuesta
    • Escarpment: steep slope
    • Cliff: sheer slope
  56. Define Bioherm
    Sedimentary rock mass built by marine life such as corals and algae
  57. Distinguish microcrystalline from cryptocrystalline
    very small versus microscopic crystalline structure
  58. Define chert
    • Sedimentary rock composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2) with small crystalline structure
    • Occurs as nodules, layers within limestone, or concretionary masses
    • Dark varieties are called flint
  59. Define schist
    foliated and flaky metamorphic rock
  60. Define granite
    igneous rock (magma that cooled slowly under crust) formed from quartz, feldspar, mica, and hornblende
  61. Define marl
    • mix of lime and clay
    • Lime is calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
  62. Define chalk
    soft limestone comprised of shells of organisms
  63. Define limestone
    • Calcium carbonate-based sedimentary rock
    • Most limestone is organic (e.g., bones, teeth, shells) but it can be inorganic (e.g., stalactites or stalagmites)
  64. What waterways surround the Cote d'Or?
    • Canal de Bourgogne on the north
    • Saone on the east
    • Canal du Centre on the south

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  65. What rivers surround the Maconnais?
    • Grosne ("GROWN") on the west
    • Saone on the east
  66. What waterways surround the Cote Chalonnaise?
    • Canal du Centre on the west
    • Saone on the north east
    • Grosne on the south east

Card Set Information

Author:
mikedutch
ID:
321195
Filename:
01 The History Geography and Winegrowing Regions of Bourgogne
Updated:
2016-06-21 15:03:53
Tags:
WSG FWS Bourgogne Burgundy
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Description:
Wine Scholar Guild Bourgogne Master Level Program
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