04 Viniculture in Bourgogne

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  1. Define triage
    • Sorting the grapes
    • Twice in vineyard, once in winery
    • Pickers paid by the day, not the ton
  2. Name winemaking options
    • De-stem - most PN is destemmed to a high degree but not completely; most CH is whole cluster
    • Crush berries or leave whole
    • Cold maceration (extracts aromas)
    • Adjusting the must (concentration, chaptalization, acidification)
    • Chaptalization up to 2%
    • Ferment in wood or stainless steel
    • Yeast selection (wild yeast is the norm for PN and CH)
    • Cap management (punch down/pump over)
    • Extended maceration after fermentation (extracts polyphenols for better aging of red wine)
    • Malolactic fermentation and maturation (battonage for CH)
    • Oak considerations
    • Racking
    • Fining and Filtering
    • Cold stabilization
    • Bottling 12-24 months after vintage
  3. Describe pressing of Chardonnay
    Whole clusters using modern ladder presses
  4. Describe pressing of Pinot Noir
    • Gentle pressing using vertical or ladder press
    • Most destem for more fruit character but some use whole clusters to add flavor and complexity
    • Press wine is combined with free run wine
  5. Describe oak considerations
    • Origin: Bourgogne uses French oak exclusively; more northerly forests are preferred because they have finer grain with more subtle influences
    • Air drying time: 2-3 years considered ideal to leech out harshness
    • Toast level: most Bourgogne barrels have light to medium toast
    • Cooperage: different temperature and time used to toast oak
    • % New Oak: major consideration; depends on vintage and wine
  6. What percent of new oak is used in Bourgogne?
    • Village AOC: 0-20%
    • Premier Cru: 20-50%
    • Grand Cru: 50-100%
  7. Name a famous cooperage in Bourgogne
    • Tonnellerie Francois Frere
    • http://www.francoisfreres.com/ang/presentation.html
  8. Describe Malolactic (secondary) fermentation
    • Wine is put in barrels and MLF occurs naturally over a long (1 year) period
    • May warm the cellar to help start MLF
    • In new world, MLF occurs much faster by adding bacteria
  9. What is cold maceration called when making white wine?
    • Skin contact (maceration pelliculaire)
    • It takes several hours for flavors in cells next to skin to leech into juice
  10. Name some differences between Pinot Noir and Chardonnay wine making techniques
    • Pressing: red wine is pressed after fermentation with skins; press white wine before fermentation to avoid skin contact
    • Fermentation temperature: 30-32ºC (86-90ºF) for PN, 18-25ºC (64-78ºF) for CH
    • Fermentation vessel: PN uses vats (allows punch down) vs barrels for CH
    • Extended maceration: develops tannins in red wine
    • Fining and filtering: not generally not done for PN but is for CH
    • Cold stabilization: removes tartrate crystals from white wine
  11. Describe cap management techniques
    • Punch down a couble times a day at the beginning of fermentation
    • Pump over toward the end of fermentation
  12. Name 2 methods of must concentration
    • Saignee
    • Reverse osmosis (extracts water from juice)
  13. Name 3 dangers of must concentration
    • loses some elgance
    • loss of very aromatic free run juice
    • can concentrate undesireables
  14. When is must concentration used?
    When target of 1/3 skin, 2/3 juice is not met
  15. Name advantages of de-stemming (compared to whole cluster fermentation)
    • more juice in vat
    • less volume to press
    • slight increase in alcohol and acid
    • less harsh tannins
    • more mellow palate
    • more fruit character
  16. Name advantages of whole cluster fermentation(compared to de-stemming)
    • breakup cap
    • aeration of must
    • heat absorption / better control of heat
    • color stabilization
    • adds flavor and complexity
    • enhance structure and cohesive texture
    • lower alcohol
    • more traditional
  17. Name 3 domaines who ferment whole clusters
    • DRC
    • Leroy
    • Dujac
  18. What factors influence the degree of destemming
    • Condition of grapes and stems
    • Characteristics of the harvest
  19. Describe cold maceration
    • chill must before fermentation to extract color
    • naturally chilly at harvest
    • usually 3-4 days but some do twice as long
    • can lose elegance and differentiation if too long
  20. Is chaptalization permitted in Bourgogne?
    • Up to 2% alcohol increase is permitted
    • Not allowed to chaptalize and acidify same wine
    • Enhances mouthfeel
  21. What is the purpose of extended maceration and when is it done?
    • Develops tannins
    • After fermentation for 2-3 weeks
  22. Is acidification common in Bourgogne?
    • No. It is rare as sugar, not acid, it usually the problem.
    • 2003 was a warm year so acidity was low
  23. Differentiate fining from filtering
    • They both clarify wine by removing unwanted elements
    • Fining: removes small partcles like unstable colloids (proteins) by adding oppositely-charged agents like egg whites or bentonite clay
    • Filtering: removes large particles like yeast, grape cells, and precipitate from fining
  24. What are the benefits of barrel aging?
    • 228 liter barrels allow gentle oxidation
    • Size and shape of barrel promotes even maturation
    • Slow oxidation reduces tannin astringency, promotes colors, develops aromatic complexity
    • Sediment settles in small footprint for easy removal
    • Hard short-chain tannins polymerize into softer long-chain tannins
  25. How do tannins in grapes differ from tannins in oak?
    • Fruit tannins reflext terroir and naturally integrate into the wine
    • Wood tannins add non-grape elements and remain after the fruit is gone
  26. Define polymerization
    a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units
  27. What considerations apply to battonage?
    • Stirring lees in barrel adds richer texture but hastens development of wine
    • Current trend is to mature longer instead of using battonage
  28. T or F? The key to Chardonnay is acid
    • True
    • The key to Pinot Noir is tannin
  29. When was Marsannay Rose invented?
    • 1920s by Domaine Bruno Clair
    • 100% PN from Cote d'Or with good body, fruit, and bright acidity
  30. Does Macon-Vilages use oak?
    • No
    • 100% CH from Maconnais with granny smith apple taste and lingering finish
  31. Where is the village of Chardonnay located?

Card Set Information

04 Viniculture in Bourgogne
2016-06-20 02:19:38
WSG FWS Bourgogne Burgundy

Wine Scholar Guild Bourgogne Master Level Program
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