06 Chablis

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  1. Where does Chablis take its name?
    • The Celtic word for cable, "shable"
    • The ferry to cross the Serein was hooked to a cable
  2. What department is Chablis in?
    Yonne, Capital is Auxerre
  3. What 7 departments are in the Borgogne-Franche-Comte region?
    Yonne, Cote d'Or, Haute Saone, Doubs, Nievre, Saone et Loire, Jura
  4. Are all of the Bourgogne appellations within the Bourgogne-France-Comte region?
    No. For example, Lyon is in the Rhone department within the Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes region.
  5. Are the chalk soils in Chablis younger or older than those in the rest of Bourgogne?
    • Younger part of Jurrassic
    • Part of the Kimmeridgian ring (Sancerre-Chablis-Aube)
  6. Name the 2 types of chalk in Chablis and which is harder
    • Portlandian: harder
    • Kimmeridgian: preferred
  7. Describe the history of wine in Chablis
    • 200: Romans introduced vine
    • 600-1400: Monks refine viticulture
    • 1100s: Auxerre major river port to Paris; Cistercians arrive
    • Middle Ages: Making distinctive white wine; Cistercians bring Chardonnay
    • 1850: Chablis is Bourgogne's most important wine area
  8. Describe the history of vineyard acreage in Chablis (75%) and Grand Auxerrois
    • 1890: 100,000 acres (all time record)
    • 1950: 1,200 acres
    • 2008: 16,575 acres
  9. Name major challenges to Chablis in 19thC
    • Competition from the Midi via railway (1856)
    • Powdery and downy mildews
    • Phylloxera
    • Loss of traditional Paris market
  10. Name some contributing factors to hard times
    • World War I (1914-07-28 to 1918-11-11) killed off men
    • Economic Stagnation
    • Rural depopulation as youth moved to Paris
    • A series of hard frosts in the 1950s
  11. Describe the Basse-Bourgogne
    • "Lower Burgundy" was a large wine-producing region that produced more red than white wine.
    • It included Chablis, The Tonnerrois, Joigny, Les Riceys, and the Avallonnais
    • After Phylloxera and competition from Midi wines, Chablis focused on Chardonnay
  12. What help grape growers decide to carry on after the disasters of the 19th C?
    • Mechanisation arrived in the 1960s (tractor, harvester, de-stemmer)
    • Chaufrettes (diesel-burning smudge pots) for frost protection
  13. Characterize Chablis & Grand Auxerrois
    • 16,575 vineyard acres
    • 3.11 m cases
    • 92% white wine
    • Chablis: 75% vineyards, 85% wine
  14. Name the ancient wine regions collectively called the Grand Auxerrois
    • Jovinien: Joigny ("ju-a-nee")
    • Auxerrois: Coulanges-la-Vineuse, Saint-Bris-le-Vineux, Irancy, Chitry
    • Vezelien: Vezelay
    • Tonnerrois: Epineuil, Tonnerre
  15. Name the main rivers of Chablis and the Grand Auxerrois from West to East
    • L'Yonne: Jovinien, Auxerrois, Vezelien
    • Le Serein: Chablisien
    • L'Armancon: Tonnerrois
  16. Name the 5 white grapes of Chablis & Grand Auxerrois
    • Chardonnay (aka Beaunois)
    • Aligote
    • Sacy (from Italy in 13C) - cremant
    • Sauvignon Blanc (since 1850) - Saint-Bris
    • Melon - Vezelay
  17. Name the 4 red grapes of the Grand Auxerrois
    • Pinot Noir
    • Gamay
    • Cesar (arrived with Romans) - Irancy
    • Tressot (disappearing)
  18. Name the 7 Regional AOCs of the Grand Auxerrois:
    • Cotes d'Auxerre
    • Chitry - mostly white
    • Coulanges-la-Vineuse - red
    • Epinueil ("EP-IN-OY")- red
    • Vezelay - Melon
    • Tonnerre - Pinot Noir
    • Cote Saint-Jacques (Joigny) - red

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  19. Village AOCs:
    • Irancy 1999
    • Saint-Bris
  20. How much wine is made in Chablis?
    • Total: 12,280 acres, 3.11 m cases
    • Grand Cru AOC: 255 acres, 60K cases
    • Premier Cru AOC: 1,935 acres, 490K cases (tremendous growth)
    • Chablis AOC: 8,140 acres, 2.08 m cases (most)
    • Petit Chablis AOC: 1,950 acres, 480K cases
  21. Describe the terroir of Petit Chablis
    More Portlandian chalk and less favored positions
  22. Describe the acreage and wine of Chablis Grand Cru
    • Total acreage: 262 acres (106 ha)
    • Bougros: 31.1 acres; rustic, burly
    • Les Preuses ("LAY PRUZ"): 28.2 acres (sunniest); ripe, succulent
    • La Moutonne: 5.8 acre;
    • Vaudesir: 36.3 acres; finesse
    • Grenouilles: 23.2 acres (smallest/lowest): intense perfume, piercing fruit
    • Valmur: 32.6 acres; fuller, softer
    • Les Clos: 64.2 acres (largest, hottest, best known, most age-worthy); apple and lemon
    • Blanchot: 31.4 acres; feminine, delicate, floral
  23. Describe La Moutonne
    • 6.2 acre vineyard mainly within Vaudesir; a bit in Les Preuses
    • Monopole of Domaine Long-Depaquit
    • Not an official Grand Cru climat as it was excluded from 1938 classification
    • Since 1950s allowed to say Chablis Grand Cru without referring to Vaudesir or Les Preuses
  24. Describe Grenouilles ownership
    Most 17.5/23.2 (75%) is owned by La Chablisienne co-op
  25. Describe Bougros ownership
    Half is owned by Domaine William Fevre
  26. Describe the Bougros climat
    • Slope: Cote de Bougeurots, ripens later; supple wine
    • Plateau: deep soil delivers robust wine
  27. Describe the evolution of Chablis Premier Cru
    • 1967: 26 lieux-dits combined into 11 climats
    • 1978: INAO loosens restrictions on location... vineyards triple
    • 1986: 40 lieux-dits combined into 17 climats
  28. How many Chablis Premier Cru climats are there?
    • In 1967, 24 were classified and placed within 11 "umbrella crus"
    • Today, 89 but only 17 "umbrella Crus" are found on the label
  29. Name the 3 most well known Chablis Premier Crus
    • Montee de Tonnerre (minerally, powerful)
    • Mont de Milieu
    • Fourchaume (fruitiest)
    • all right bank (north), first 2 adjacent to GC with similar soil
  30. Name the 7 right bank Chablis "umbrella" premier crus
    • Mont de Milieu
    • Montee de Tonnerre
    • Fourchaume
    • Les Fourneaux
    • Berdiot
    • Cote de Vaubarousse
    • Vaucoupin (also spelled Vaucoupain)
  31. Name 10 left bank Chamblis "umbrella" premier crus
    • Les Beauregards
    • Beauroy
    • Chaume de Talvat
    • Cote dLechet
    • Montmains (floral)
    • Vau Ligneau
    • Vau de Vey
    • Vaillons
    • Vogros
  32. Was Chablis ever a part of Champagne?
    • Yes
    • During the Middle Ages, Chablis belonged to the Counts of Champagne
    • After the death of Charles the Bold (1477), it was incorporated in the Duchy of Burgundy
  33. Name Valois Dukes of Burgundy, when they reigned, and what they did
    • 1363-1404: Philippe the Bold banned manure in vineyards and issued edict of 1395 to oust gamay
    • 1404-1419: John the Fearless allowed King Charles VI to fix zone of Burgundy production
    • 1419-1467: Philippe the Good built Hospices de Beaune as charity hospital for commoners; also issued edict in 1441 to ban gamay)
    • 1467-1477: Charles the Bold
  34. Name some historic high-hielding grape varieties planted to produce cheap "vin de comptoir" for Paris cafes
    • "Countertop wine" was made from Plante Vert (Sacy), Damery, and Hivernage and Chardonnay (called Morillon Bnak and Pinot Blanc)
    • Chardonnay "won" after the 19th century disasters
  35. How long is the growing season in Chablis?
    180 days
  36. How much sunlight does Chablis get?
    1,285 hours during growing season
  37. T or F? The best vineyards face south-west and lie on the right bank of the Serein River
    True
  38. T or F? The premier Cru vineyards lie on the left bank of the Serein River
    True
  39. The vineyards at the lower portion of the Grand Cru slope are frost-challenged
    True
  40. What is the elevation of Chablis vineyards?
    429-890 feet (130-270 meters)
  41. T or F? Kimmeridgean and Portlandian marl take their name from places in Dorset county on the English Channel
    • True
    • Village of Kimmeridgean
    • Isle of Portland
  42. When was Kimmeridgean and Portlandian marl formed?
    • Kimmeridgean: 150-154 mya (from small oysters called exogyra virgule)
    • Portlandian: 142-147 mya (from giant ammonite called titanites anguiformis)
  43. Name villages in the Kimmeridgean ring
    • Cotes des Bar
    • Chablis, Auxerre
    • Tonnerre-Epinueil
    • Yonne Valley
    • Pouilly-Sur-Loire
    • Sancerre
    • Menetou-Salon
    • Quincy
    • Reuilly
  44. T or F? Serein river valley is a nature frost pocket
    • True
    • Cold air from the north west
    • Severe frost 3 of 10 years
  45. How much do remedies for frost cost each night?
    • Chaufrettes (smudge pots): $180/acre; need a person to ensure they don't burn out
    • Aspersion overhead sprinklers: $180/50 acres; very effective
    • Electric wires: emanate heat, experimental
    • Plastic sheeting: experimental
  46. How does aspersion protect vines from frost?
    • Water freezes at 0°C
    • Vines don't suffer until -5°C
  47. Define some French wine terms that start with V
    • vieille - old ("vee ay")
    • vigne - vine
    • viticulteur - vine grower
    • vigneron - vine grower/wine maker
    • vignoble - vineyard
  48. How long should you cellar Chablis?
    • Les Chablis Grand Cru: 5-12 years from vintage
    • Les Chablis Premier Cru: 3-8 years
    • Le Chablis: 1-4 years
    • Le Petit Chablis: 6 months - 2.5 years
  49. Name some controversies in Chablis
    • Restrictionists: Le Syndicate de la Defense de l'Appellation Chablis require Kimmeridean soil
    • Expansionists: La Federation des Viticulteurs Chablisien formed by Jean Durup
    • Combined 2007: La Federation de la Defense de l'appellation Chablis (expansionists won)
    • Machine Harvest (90-95%) vs Pick by hand (Grand Cru)
    • Oak or not (more wood ut less new wood today)
  50. Name 5 threats to quality in Chablis
    • Improper siting
    • Young vines (fastest growing region in Bourgogne)
    • Machine harvesting
    • High yields
    • Over manipulation
  51. Describe the taste of Chablis
    • Green gold
    • Some viscosity
    • steel, gunflint, grilled nuts
    • understated, subtle
    • long, distinct, complex, dry, rich, lingering finish
  52. What is the min abv and min must weight for Chablis?
    • Grand Cru: 11%, 170 g/l
    • Premier Cru: 10.5%, 161 g/l
  53. What does must weight mean?
    • Amount of sugar in grape juice
    • Indicates the amount of alcohol that could be produced if fermented dry
  54. What is the vine density in Chablis?
    5500 vines/ha
  55. Compare the rendement of Chablis vs Cote d'Or
    • Chablis has higher maximum yield (hl/ha)
    • Vintage 2002: Chablis vs Cote d'Or
    • Grand Cru: 52 vs 44
    • Premier Cru: 58 vs 51
    • Village: 59 vs 53
  56. What is the formula to convert from hl/ha to tons/acre?
    • Divide by 14
    • Formula derivation:
    • 1 ha = 2.4710439300 acre
    • 1 metric tonne (t) = 1000 kg
    • 1 t/acre = 2471/176.5 = 14 hl/ha (assuming 176.5 kg grapes make 1 hl wine)
    • Red grapes usually make more wine than white grapes

Card Set Information

Author:
mikedutch
ID:
321200
Filename:
06 Chablis
Updated:
2016-06-20 02:21:31
Tags:
WSG FWS Bourgogne Burgundy
Folders:

Description:
Wine Scholar Guild Bourgogne Master Level Program
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