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The study of human movement as it relates to the physical sciences?
Describes the motion of a body (two types)?
Kinematics ( rotational and translational)
Describes the effect of forces on a body?
Motion of bones relative to the 3 cardinal planes is called ________?
1. sagittal plan is associated with ______ and ________
2. frontal plane is associated with ______ and ________
3. horizontal plane is associated with ______ and _______
- 1. flexion and extension
- 2. abduction and adduction
- 3. internal and external rotation
Motion that occurs between the articular surfaces of a joint is know as _____?
This plane bisectes dividing into right and left halves.
This plane bisects the body into front and back halves?
This plane bisects the body into upper and lower halves?
The Sagittal Plane
- divides the body into _______ and ________ halves
- Axis: ______/________ axis passes horizontally side to side
- Basic motions: _________/_________
- - right and left
- - medial and lateral axis
- - flexion and extension
The Frontal Plane
- divides the body into ______ and ________ halves
- Axis: _______/_________ axis passes horizontally front to back
- basic motions: _____ and _______
- - front and back halves
- - anterior/ posterior axis
- - abduction/ adduction
- divides body into _____ and ______ halves
- Axis: ______/______ axes passes vertically
- basic motions:
- - top and bottom halves
- - superior and inferior axes
- - shoulder internal and external rotation, pronation and suppination
- series of points on one articular surface contacts with a series of points on another articular surface
- specific point on one articlating surface comes in contact with a series of points on another surface
- single point on one articular surface rotates about a single point on another articular surface
Roll, Glide, Spin
Degrees of Freedom (3 characteristics)
- 1. number of independent movements allowed at a joint
- 2. indicates the number of planes that joint can move through
- 3. most joints have between 1 and 3 degrees of freedom
Primary factors affecting joint ROM
- 1. shape of articulating joints
- 2. ligamentous support
- 3. internal forces (muscles, tendons, ligaments)
- 4. external forces (gravity, weight resistance)
Close-packed joint position (4 characteristics)
- - max joint contact
- - max tightness of ligaments and capsule
- - max stability of joint
- - mechanically stable, less need of muscles to stabilize
Open-packed joint postion (4 characteristics)
- - loose packed
- - ligaments and capsules are slack
- - minimal joint surface contact
- - allows for necessary accessory movement for spin, roll, and glide
Convex joint surface moves in _________ direction of the bone segment.
Concave joint surface moves in the ______ direction as the bone segment.
________= less than normal range of motion.
___________= exceeds the normal range of joint motion.
_________: joint is fibrous and cartilaginous tussue that allows little to no motion at the joint (fibrous and cartilaginous)
____________: joint is covered by synovial, fluid filled capsule and allows moderate to extensive motion
_________ Motion: each point along tho object moves through space at the same angle, at he same time, at heht same angular velocity, and at a contstant distance from the axis of rotation.
True or false:
No true rotary motion occurs in the body because most joints are not fixed axes
Lever system for rotation
1. what are the levers?
2. what are the axes of motion?
3. what causes the levers to rotate?
- 1. bones
- 2. joints
- 3. muscles, gravity, other forces
______ is defined as rotation around a fixed point with translation through space
_______ is described as movement of an object or segment through space in a straight line.
Open chain kinematic chain
______ segment of the chain _____ in space while the ________ segment is ______.
Distal segment of the chain moves in space with the proximal segment is fixed
e.g. bicep curl
Closed kinematic chain:
_______ segment of the chain is ________ while the _______ segment ________.
Distal segment of the chain is fixed while the proximal segment moves.
________ is known as movement in which a body part's motion can describe a cone; the apex of the cone is at the joint and the base of it is at the distal end of the body part
________ bones are small, cubital shaped, chunky, thick, and usually have large articular surface in order to articulate with more than one bone.
________ bones are long, cylindrical shaft with wide protruding ends, usually containing a medullary cavity.
_______ bones usually have curved surface and vary from thick to thin
________ bones are primarily the bones of the sponal column, and some of the skull and pelvic bones.
______ bones are embedded within a tendon or musculotendinous unit that provide protection and improved mechanical advantage.