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What is the relation of natriuretic hormone to water?
- Released from the heart.
- Main function is to lower blood pressure and control electrolyte homeostasis.
What is ADH relation to water?
Released from the Posterior Pituitary to increased re-absorption of water in the blood.
When is Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone produced?
Released from kidneys in response to low blood pressure.
Left gonadal vein drain to?
Left renal vein
Azygos vein drain to?
Superior vena cava.
What does the media cubital vein does and what does it connect to?
- The median cubital vein connects the basilic vein to the cephalic vein.
- Often used for venipuncture (taking blood).
Popliteal artery is continuation of to what artery?
- Femoral artery.
- It is located in the knee in the back of the leg.
What does the suprarenal arteries supply?
Medial forearm is supplied by which artery?
Which are not part of the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis)?
Middle cerebral artery.
Which are part of the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis)?
- Anterior communicating artery.
- Anterior cerebral artery.
- Internal carotid artery.
- Posterior communicating artery.
- Posterior cerebral artery.
Vasa vasorum and function
- Blood vessels supply artery and vein walls.
- Small vessels distributed to the outer and middle coats of larger vessels.
Innermost coat of a blood vessel; consist of endothelium, a lomina propia, and an inner elastic membrane.
- Smooth muscles arranged.
- Middle, usually muscular, coat of an artery or another tubular structure.
Tunica externa (adventitia)
Outermost fibrous coat of a vessel, or an organ that is derived from the surrounding connective tissue.
Continuous capillaries vs fenestrated capillaries?
- Continuous: no gaps between endothelial cells. No fenestrae.
- Fenestrated: Have pores. Endothelial cells have numerous fenestrae.
Heart rate Vs body temp
- Heart (hot) rate increases when body temperature increases.
- Heart (cold) rate decreases when body temperature decreases.
Low oxygen levels do to the adrenal gland?
The medulla increases epinephrine production to increase more blood in the lungs for more oxygen.
Low Co2 and high Co2 heart response
- High Co2: body will try to get rid of high Co2 through the lungs by increasing heart rate.
- Low Co2: cardiac ouput decrease to bring Co2 back up with less gas exchange..
Cardiac output Vs Exercise
- At rest, contraction of atria not necessary for heart function.
- During exercise, atrial contraction necessary for function as heart pumps 300%-400%.
What is the cardiac cycle and first heart sounds?
- Hear is two pumps that work together, right and left half
- Repetitive contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of heart chambers
- Blood moves through circulatory system from areas of higher to lower pressure.
- Contraction of heart produces the pressure.
- P wave: First complex of the electrocardiogram representing depolarization of the atria.
- QRS complex: Principal deflection in the electrocardiogram, representing ventricular depolarization.
- T wave: Deflection in an electrocardiogram following the QRS complex, representing ventricular repolarization.
Medial to right atrioventricular valve.
- Medial to opening of superior vena cava.
- The pacemaker.
Passes through a hole in cardiac skeleton to reach interventricular septum.
Left ventricle contracts
aortic valve opens.
Right ventricle contracts
pulmonary valve opens.
Heart chambers and function
- Right atrium: three major openings receive blood returning from the body.
- Left atrium: four openings receive blood from pulmonary veins.
- Interatrial septum:
- Atrioventricular canals:
- Right ventricle: opens to pulmonary trunk
- Left ventricle: opens to aorta
- Interventricular septum: between the two
Percent of blood that is RBC's.
- They are a type of white blood cells that play a major role in protecting your body from infection.
- They send signals to activate your body's immune response when they detect "intruders," like viruses or bacteria.
Blood type and antibodies
- Type A: blood has anti-B antibodies;
- Type B: bood has anti-A antibodies.
- Type O: as "universal donor". Can actually cause tranfusion reactions because of antibodies in O blood plasma.
- Rh positive: have these antigens present on surface of RBC's.
- Rh negative: do not have these antigens present.
Blood clot. A network of threadlike fibrin fibers, trapped blood cells, platelets and fluid.
Cell fragment [thrombocytes]. Form platelet plugs, release chemicals necessary for blood clotting.
White blood cells [WBC] and function
Protect body against microorganism and remove dead cells and debris.
Red blood cells [RBC]
Erythrocytes. Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Hormone produced by kidneys in response to low blood O2 levels and increases RBC production.
What does nitric oxide do to red blood cells?
Lowers blood pressure by dilating vessels.
- Albumins: viscosity, osmotic pressure, buffer, transports fatty acids, free bilirubin, thryoid hormones.
- Globulins: transports lipids, carbohydrates, hormones, ions, antibodies, and complement.
- Fibrinogen: blood clotting.
Neutrophils, eosinphils, & basophils.
Lymphocytes & monocytes.
What percentage of blood is plasma?
- The arch of the aorta has 3 branches:
- Branchiocephalic: which divides into right and left
- Common Carotid Artery: and the right and left
- Subclavian Artery:
- These arteries provide blood to both arms and the head.
Complete Blood Count [CBC]
A complete blood count (CBC) is an analysis of blood that provides much useful information. A CBC consists of a red blood count, hemoglobin and hematocrit measurements, a white blood count, and a differential white blood count.
- Phagocytizes microorganisms and other substances.
- Destroy inflammatory chemicals like histamine.
- Least common.
- Account for less than 1% of the WBC.
- Account for 20%-25% of WBC.
- Become macrophages.
More elastic tissue than muscle. Relatively thick and thin.