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  1. C5 DERMATOME:
    • BICEPS & DELTOID
    • CAN ASSIT WITH TRANSFERS
  2. C6 DERMATOME
    • PEC MAJOR, EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS, TERES MAJOR
    • MAYBE INDEPENDENT WITH SLIDE BOARD
  3. C7 DERMATOME:
    • TRICEPS, LAT DORSI, EXTRINSIC FINGER EXTENSORS, FLEXOR CARPI RADIALIS
    • INDEPENDENT MANUAL WC PROPULSION
  4. C8-T1 DERMATOME:
    • FLEXOR CARPI ULNARIS, IN AND EX-TRINSIC HAND MUSLCES
    • INDEPENDENT WITH WC TRANSFERS
  5. T1-8 DERMATOME:
    • TOP HALF OF INTERCOASTLES
    • PHUSIOLOGICAL STANDING WITH ORTHOSES IN // BARS
  6. WHAT IS RIDIGITY?
    INABILITY TO BEND
  7. WHAT IS SPASTICITY?
    • CONSTANTLY CONTRACTED MUSCLES;
    • TIGHTNESS, STIFF
  8. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF HYPERTONIA?
    • SPASTICITY- UMN LESION; VOLUNTARY
    • DECORITCATE RIDIGITY- SUSTAINED EXTENSOR POSTURING IN ALL EXTREMITIESS; UMN LESION BRAINSTEM
    • RIDIGITY- RESISTANCE TO PASSIVE STRETCH; UMN BASAL GANGLIA
    • COGWHEEL RIDIGITY- RATCHET LIKE
    • LEADPIPE RIDIGITY- CONSTANT RIGID
  9. WHAT IS HYPOTONIA?
    • FLACCID- LMN LESION CEREBELLA
    • FOLLOWS SPINAL OR CEREBELLAR SHOCK AND EITHER RESOLVES OR BECOMES SPASTICITY
  10. HOW DO LEFT STROKES LOOK AND ACT?
    • RIGHT HEMIPLEGIA
    • SLOW CAUTIOUS, INSECURE AND HESITANT
    • SPEECH/LANGAUGE DEFICITS
  11. HOW DO RIGHT STROKES LOOK AND ACT?
    • LEFT HEMIPLEGIA/-PARIESIS, HEMISENSORY LOSS
    • VISUAL/PERCEPTUAL DEFICITS
    • QUICK AND IMPULSIVE, POOR JUDEGEMENTS, OVER ESTIMATES ABIITIES
    • TROUBLE PERCEIVING EMOTIONS
  12. WHAT ARE THE COMMON SPEECH AND COMMUNICATION DEFICITS FOLLOWING A STROKE?
    • NONFLUENT APHASIA (BROCAS, EXPRESSIVE OR MOTOR APHASIA)VERBAL APRAXIA- IMPAIRMENT OF VOLUNTARY ARTICULATION
    • DYSARTHIRA- DECREASED ABILITY TO CONTROL MOVEMENTS OF THE JAW, TONGUE OR RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES NEEDED FOR SPEECH CONTROL
    • RECEPTIVE DYSFUNCTION- FLUENT APHASIS (WERNICKES OR RECEPTIVE APHASIA)- SPONTANEOUS SPEECH IS PRESERVED AND FLUENT; AUDITORY COMPREHENSION IS SEVERELY IMPAIRED
    • GLOBAL APHASIA- COMBO OF EXPRESSIVE AND RECEPTIVE APHASIA
  13. T9-12 DERMATOME:
    • ABDOMINALS
    • HOUSEHOLD AMBULATION WITH BIL KAFO'S AND AD; NO HIP FLEXOR
  14. T12 DERMATOME:
    • ABDOMINALS 
    • COMMUNITY AMBULATION WITH BIL KAFOS AND AD'S
  15. L1-2 DERMATOME:
    • QUADRATUS LUMBORUM, ILIOPSAS & SARTORIUS
    • MAYBE INDE WITH COMM AMBULATION WITH BIL KAFOS AND AD'S
  16. L3-5 DERMATOME:
    • L3-4- ILIOPSAS
    • L4-5- QUADRICPS & MEDIAL HAMS
    • BIL AFOS WITH CANES; NO GLUTE MAX
  17. S1-2 DERMATOME:
    • PLANTARFLEXION AND GLUTE MAX
    • MAY AMBU WITH ARTICULATED AFO'S
  18. WHAT ARE THE TIME FRAMES OF LIGAMENT HEALING:
    • DAY 3-2 WEEKS: IMFLAMMATORY- RICE
    • WEEK 2- 6: PROLIFERATIVE- AROM & LIGHT RESIST
    • WEEK 6- 1 YEAR: REMODELING AROM, RESIST, PLYOMETRIC, KT TAPE
  19. WHAT ARE THE TIME FRAMES FOR MUSCLES HEALING?
    • DAY 1-5: INFLAMMATORY- RICE & PROM
    • DAY 5- WEEK 6: PROLIFERATIVE- AROM & LIGHT RESISTANCE, AROM & PLYOMETRIC, WB ACTIVITIES
    • WEEK 6- 6 MONTHS: REMODELING- AROM RESISTIVE, PLYOMETRIC, WB
  20. WHAT ARE THE TIME FRAMES FOR BONE HEALING:
    • DAY 1- 2 WEEKS: INFLAMMATORY- RICE, PROM, NWB/PWB
    • WEEK 2- WEEK 12: PROLEFERATIVE- PWB-WBAT AROM TO SUB MAX
    • WEEK -12 YEARS (+): REMODELING- FWB, MAX RESIST
  21. WHAT ARE STRAINS?
    • TORN MUSCLE FIBERS
    • 1: FEW FIBERS TORN; MINOR WEAKNESS, SPASMS, AND SWELLING WITH PAIN WITH DECREASED ROM
    • 2: APPROX 1/2 FIBERS TORN: MODERATED WEAKNESS, SPASMS AND SWELLING WITH PAIN AND DECREASED ROM
    • 3: ALL FIBERS TORN: MODERATE TO SIGNIFICANT WEAKNESS, SPASMS AND SWELLING WITHOUT PAIN AND +/- ROM
  22. WHAT ARE SPRAINS?
    • TORN LIGAMENT FIBERS
    • SAME CHARACTERISTICS AS STRAINS
    • FEW; 1/2; ALL 
    • MILD/MODERATE/SIGNIFICANT
  23. WHAT IS ANAROBIC CONDITIONING?
    short-lasting, high-intensity activity, where your body's demand for oxygen exceeds the oxygen supply available, relies on energy sources that are stored in the muscles
  24. WHAT IS AEROBIC CONDITIONING?
    "cardio"-exercise that requires pumping of oxygenated blood by the heart to deliver oxygen to working muscles. Aerobic exercise stimulates the heart rate and breathing rate to increase in a way that can be sustained for the exercise session
  25. PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF FRONTAL LOBE:
    • PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX; PRECENTRAL GYRUS
    • BROCAS AREA
    • COGNITION, JUDGEMENT, ATTENTION, EMOTIONAL CONTROL
  26. PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF PARIETAL LOBE:
    • PRIMARY SENSORY  CORTEX; POSTCENTRAL GYRUS
    • SHORT TERM MEMORY, PERCEPTION OF TOUCH, PROPRIOCEPTION, PAIN AND TEMP
  27. PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF TEMPORAL LOBE:
    • PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX; RECEIVES 
    • ASSOCIATIVIE AUDITORY COTREX; PROCRESSES
    • WERNICKES AREA
    • LONG TERM MEMORY, VISUAL PERCEPTION, PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX; RECEIVES INFO
  28. PRIMARY FUNCITONS OF OCCIPITAL LOBE:
    VISUAL ASSOCIATION CORTEX: PROCESSES INFO AND APPLIES MEANING
  29. HOW DOES AN ACA STROKE PRESENT?
    • CONTRALATERAL HEMISENSORY AND MOTOR LOSS WITH LE MORE INVLOVED THAN UE'
    • MENTAL IMPAIRMENT
    • INCONTINENCE
    • APRAXIA
    • SLOW DELAYED MOVEMENT
    • BEHAVORIAL
  30. HOW DOES AN MCA STROKE PRESENT?
    • LATERAL FRONTAL, TEMPORAL, AND PARIETAL 
    • CONTRALATERL HEMISENSORY AND MOTOR LOSS WITH FACE AND UE MORE INVOLVED THEN LE
    • PERCEPTUAL DEFICITS, HOMONYMOUS HEMIANOPSIA
    • BROCAS OR WERNICKES, 
    • GLOBAL APHASIA
  31. HOW DOES A PCA STROKE PRESENT?
    • OCCIPITAL, MEDIAL AND INFERIOR TEMPORAL, THALAMUS AND MIDBRAIN
    • CONTRALATERAL SENSORY AND MOTOR LOSS
    • HOMONYOS HEMIANOPSIA, VISUAL AGNOSIA, CORTICAL BLINDNESS
    • PUSHERS 
    • INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS
  32. WHAT IS THE BLOOD FLOW THROUGH THE HEART?
    • RIGHT ATRIUM: RECEIVES UNOXYGENATED BLOOD VIA SUPERIOR/INFERIOR VENA CAVA
    • RIGHT VENTRICLE: RECEIVES BLOOD FROM RIGHT ATRIUM AND SENDS BLOOD TO THE LUNGS VIA THE PULMONARY ARTERY
    • LEFT ATRIUM: RECEIVES OXYGENATED BLOOD LUNGS VIA 4 PULMONARY VEINS
    • LEFT VENTRICLE: RECEIVES BLOOD FROM LEFT ATRIUM AND SENDS IT TO THE BODY VIA THE AORTA.
  33. NORMS: HEMATOCRIT, HEOMOGLOBIN,WBC'S, RBC'S, HDL/LDL RATIO
    • HEMATOCRIT: MALE 42-52
    •                      FEMALE 37-47
    • HEMOGLOBIN: MALE 14-18
    •                        FEMALE 12-16
    • WBC'S: 5000-10000
    • RBC'S: MALE 4.7-6.1
    •             FEMALE 4.2-5.4
    • HDL/LDL: LOW .05-3.0
    •                 MOD 3.0-6.0
    •                HIGH >6.0
  34. WHAT DO ACE INHIBTORS DO?
    • DECREASE BLOOD PRESSURE
    • WATCH FOR DIZINESS OR ORTHOSTATIC
  35. WHAT DO ANTI-ADRENERGICS DO?
    DECREASE BLOOD PRESSURE WITHOUT A SELECTIVE RECEPTOR BLOCKAGE
  36. WHAT DO CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS DO?
    • PROMOTE VASODILATION AND DECREASE BP & HR AT REST AND EXERCISES
    • USED PERCEIVED EXERTION SCALE AND MONITOR FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO EXERCISE
  37. WHAT DO ALPHA BLOCKERS DO?
    • DECREASE BLOOD PRESSURE
    • WATCH FOR S/S OF HYPOTENSION AND REFLEX TACCHYCARDIA
  38. WHAT DO BETA BLOCKERS DO?
    • DECREASE THE FORCE OF CARDIAC CONTRACTION THAT CAUSES DECREASE IN HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE
    • WATCH FOR BRADYCARDIA AND ORTHOSTATIC, USE PERCEIVED EXERTION SCALE
  39. WHAT DO DIURETICS DO?
    • INCREASE BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE AT REST AND EXERCISE TO INCREASE CARDIAC CONTRACTILITY
    • CAN CAUSE FLUID AND ELECTROLYE IMBALANCE; OBSERVE FOR WEAKNESS OR SPASMS, HEADACHE AND POOR COORDINATION, BRADYCARDIA AND ORTHOSTATIC
  40. WHAT DO NITRATES DO?
    • PROMOTE VASODIALATION, INCREASE HEART RATE AND DECREASE BP AT REST
    • OBSERVE FOR DIZZINESS, TACHYCARDIA AND ORTHOSTATIC, HEADACHE
  41. WHAT IS RIGHT SIDED HEART FAILURE?
    • FAILS TO PUMP ADEQUATE BLOOD WHICH RESULTS IN PERIPHERAL EEMA AND VENOUS CONGESTION OF THE ORGANS
    • DEPENDENT EDEMA,JUGULAR DISTENSION, CYANOSIS OF NAIL BEDS
  42. WHAT IS LEFT SIDED HEART FAILURE?
    • CAUSED BY COMBO OF HYPERTENSION AND ISCHEMIA; LEFT VENTICULAR INABILITY TO MAINTAIN BLOOD SUPPPLY FOR THE BODYS NEED
    • PULMONARY EDEMA,DYSPNEA, FATIGUE AND MUSCLE WEAKNESS
  43. WHAT IS PHASE 1 OF CARDIAC REHAB?
    1: INPATIENT/ ACUTE CARE- USUALLY 3-5 DAYS. LOW INTENSITY 2-3 METS, PROGRESSING TO 3-5 METS. RPE IN FAIRLY LIGHT RANGE AND HR INCREASE10-20BMP. SHORT SESSIONS 2-3x/DAY. HEP INCLUDES WALKING 20-30 MINUTES 1-2X/DAY FOR 4-6 WEEKS.
  44. WHAT IS PHASE 2 OF CARDIAC REHAB?
    2: OUTPATIENT/ SUB-ACUTE: MUST HAVE 3 MET TOLERANCE LEVEL PROGRESSING TOWARDS FULL RESUMPTION OF PREVIOUS LEVEL OF FUNCTION. 36 VISITS ALLOWED (USUALLY) 3x/WEEKx 12 WEEKS. GROUP EXERCISES INCLUDING WALKING AND CIRCUIT  FROM CONTINUOUS MONTORING TO SELF MONITORING. 30-60 MINUTES SESSIONS WITH 5-10 MINUTES OF WARM-UP AND COOL DOWN. BEGIN USING WEIGHTS AND THERABAND (1-3#) and progress TOWARDS MODERATE LOADS, 12-15 REPS COMFORTABLE.
  45. WHAT IS PHASE 3 OF CARDIAC REHAB?
    3: COMMUNITY EXERCISES: MUST HAVE 5 MET TOLERANCE. SELF REGULATION OF EXERCISE PROGRAMS WITHIN COMMUNITY CENTERS WITH STABLE ANGINA AND MEDICALLY CONTROLLED ARRHYHMIAS DURING EXERCISE. PROGRESSING TO 50-85% OF FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY 3-4X/WEEK 45+ MINUTES/ SESSION. DISCHARGE TYPICALLY IN 6-12 MONTHS.
  46. WHAT IS THE "ABCDE" OF MELANOMA?
    • A: ASYMMETRY; UNEVEN EDGES
    • B: BORDER; IRREGULAR, POORLY DEFINED EDGES
    • C: COLOR; VARIATIONS ESPECIALLY MIXTURES OF BLUE, BLACK AND RED
    • D: DIAMETER; LARGER THAN 6 MM
    • E: ELEVATION; USUALLY ELEVATED, BUT MAY BE FLAT
  47. WHAT IS A FIRST DEGREE BURN?
    SUPERFICIAL EPIDERMIS BURN WITH BLISTERS, INFLAMMATION AND SEVERE PAIN THAT TYPICALLY HEALS WITHIN 3-7 DAYS
  48. WHAT IS A SECOND DEGREE BURN?
    • SUPERFICIAL PARTIAL THICKNESS BURN THAT INVOLVES THE EPIDERMIS AND UPPER LAYERS OF THE DERMIS THAT BLISTERS, INFLAMMATION, AND SEVER PAIN THAT TYPICALLY HEALS WITH 7-21 DAYS
    • DEEP PARTIAL THICKNESS THAT INVOLVES EPIDERMIS, DERMIS, NERVE ENDINGS, HAIR FOLLICLES AND SWEAT GLANDS THAT IS RED OR WHITE WITH EDEMA, BLISTERS AND SEVERE PAIN THAT TYPICALLY HEALS IN 21-28 DAYS WITH SCAR FORMATION.
  49. WHAT IS A THIRD DEGREE BURN?
    FULL THICKNESS BURN THAT INVOLVES EPIDERMIS, DERMIS AND SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE THAT IS WHITE, GRAY OR BLACK WITH DRY, EDEMA, ESCHAR AND LITTLE PAIN THAT IS HEALED BY REMOVAL OF ESCHAR AND SKIN GRAFTING
  50. WHAT IS A FOURTH DEGREE BURN?
    SUBDERMAL BURN THAT INCLUDES ALL THE WAY DOWN TO THE BONE THAT IS WHITE, GRAY OR BLACK WITH EDEMA, ESCHAR AND LITTLE PAIN THAT REQUIRES EXTENSIVE SURGERY OR AMPUTATION FOR RECOVERY.
  51. WHAT IS A HYPERTROPHIC AND KELOID SCAR?
    • HYPERTROPHIC: RAISED SCAR THAT STAYS WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF THE BURN THAT IS RAISED, RED, AND FIRM.
    • KELOID: RAISED SCAR THAT EXTENDS BEYOND THE BOUNDARIES OF THE ORIGINAL BURN WOUND AND IS RED RAISED AND FIRM. MORE COMMON IN WOMEN AND THOSE WITH DARK SKIN.
  52. WHAT IS AN ARTERIAL WOUND?
    INVOLVES THE TOES AND DORSUM OF FOOT AND LATERAL MALLEOLUS. THE WOUND IS OFTEN FULL THICKNESS WITH WELL DEMARCATED "PUNCHED-OUT" LESION THAT IS PALE WITH NO GRANULATION THAT IS PAINFUL WITH DECREASED  PULSES.
  53. WHAT IS A VENOUS WOUND?
    INVOLVES THE MEDIAL MALLEOLUS. THE WOUND IS OFTEN PARTIAL THICKNESS WITH SHAGGY EDGES THAT HAS A YELLOW FIBROUS COVERING WITH GRANULATING TISSUES. PULSES ARE GOOD AND THERE IS NO PAIN.
  54. WHAT IS A STAGE 1 PRESSURE ULCER?
    NONBLANCHABLE ERYTHEMA OF INTACT SKIN. MAY INCLUDED CHANGES IN TEMP (WARM OR COOL) TISSUE CONSISTANCE (FIRM OR BOGGY) AND / OR SENSATION (PAIN, ITCHING)
  55. WHAT IS A STAGE 2 PRESSURE ULCER?
    PARITAL THICKNESS SKIN LOSS INVLOVES EPIDERMIS, DERMIS OR BOTH. ULCER IS SUPERFICIAL. PRESENTS CLINCALLY AS AN ABRASION, BLISTER OR SHALLOW CRATER
  56. WHAT IS A STAGE 3 PRESSURE ULCER?
    FULL THICKNESS SKIN LOSS: INVOLVES DAMAGE TO OR NECROSIS OF SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. MAY EXTEND DOWN TO , UT NOT THROUGH UNDERLYING FASICA. PRESENTS CLINALLY AS A DEEP CRATER.
  57. WHAT IS A STAGE 4 PRESSURE ULCER?
    FUL THICKNESS SKIN LOSS. INVOLVES EXTENSIVE DESTRUCTION, TISSUE NEROSIS, OOR DAMGE TO MUSCLE BONE OR SUPPORTING STRUCTURES. UNDERMINING AND SINUS TRACTS MAY BE PRESENT.
  58. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT WAYS OF WOUND CLENSING?
    • NORMAL SALINE: NON TOXIC TO CELLS 
    • TOPICAL AGENTS:POVIDONE-IODINE SOLUTION, DAKINS
    • MECHANICAL FORCE: GAUZE, CLOTH OR SPONGE
    • IRRIGATION: SYRINGE, PULSATILE LAVAGE
    • HYDROTHERAPY: WHIRLPOOL
    • DEBRIDEMENT:
    • DRESSINGS: OCCLUSIVE (MOSITURE RETENTIVE)ALGINATE, TRANSPARENT FILM, FOAM, HYDROGEL, HYDROCOLLOID. 
    • GAUZE DRESSINGS: STANDARD AND IMPREGNATED (TELFA PAD)
    • SEMI-RIGID: UNNA BOOT THAT IS IMPREGNATED WITH OINTMENTS (ZINC OXIDE)
  59. WHAT ARE THE 5 WAYS OF WOUND DEBRIDEMENT?
    • AUTOLYTIC: NATUAL DEBRIDEMENT UNDER OCCLUSIVE DRESSINGS THAT RESULTS IN SOLUBILIZATION OF NECROTIC TISSUE 
    • ENZYMATIC: PROMOTES LIQUIFICATION OF NECROTIC TISSUE THAT IS CONSUMED BY ENZYMES. 
    • MECHANICAL: PHYSCAL FORCES; WET-TO-DRY GAUZE, PULSE LAVAGE, SYRINGE AND SUCTION, WHIRL POOL
    • SHARP: INSTRUMENTS SUCH AS SCALPEL, SCISSORS, ETC. 
    • SURGICAL: DEEP (STAGE 3 OR 4) COMPLETE REMOVAL OF NECROTIC TISSUES THAT MAY OR MAY NOT INVOLVE HEALTHY TISSUE.
  60. WHAT ARE THE NORMAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH PREGNANCY?
    • POSTURAL: KYPHOSIS, SCAPULAR PROTRACTION, CERIVCAL LORDOSIS & FORWARD HEAD
    • BALANCE: CENTER OF GRAVITY IS SHIFTED FORWARD AND UP
    • LIGAMENTOUS LAXITY: SECONDARY TO HORMONAL INFLUANCES (RELAXIN)
    • MUSCLE WEAKNESS: ABS ARE STRETCHED AND WEAKNED. STRESS INCONTINENCE SECONDARY TO WEAKNED PELVIC FLOOR.
    • URINARY CHANGES: FREQUENT URNINATION, INCREASED INCIDENCE OF REFLUX AND UTI. 
    • RESPIRATORY: ELEVATION OF DIAPHRAGM AND  WIDENING OF THORACIC CAGE
    • CARDIOVASCULAR: INCREASED BLOOD VOLUME AND VENOUS PRESSURE IN BLE WITH INCREASED HEART RATE AND CARDIAC OUTPUT, DECREASED BLOOD PRESSURE.
  61. WHEN IS IT SAFE TO RESUME EXERCISES AFTER DIASTASIS RECTI ABDOMINIS?
    WHEN THE SEPARTION IS LESS THAN 2 CM; UNTIL THEN TEACH ABDMINAL BRACING.
  62. WHAT ARE POST CESAREAN EXERCISES?
    • GENTLE ABDMONAL EXERCISES PROVISED INCISINAL SUPPORT WITH PILLOW. 
    • PELIV FLOOR EXERCISES; LABOR AND PUSHING IS TYPICALL PRESENT BEFORE SURGERY
    • POSTURAL EXERCISES: PRECAUTIONS ABOUT HEAVY IFTING FOR 4-6 WEEKS
  63. WHAT ARE THE S/S FOR HYPOGLYCEMIA?
    • PALLOR
    • SHAKINESS/TREMBLING
    • SWEATING
    • TACHYCARIDA AND PALPATIONS
    • DIZZINESS
    • WEAKNESS AND FATIGUE
    • NERVOUS/IRRITABLE
    • HEADACHE
    • BLURRED/DOUBLE VISION
  64. WHAT ARE THE S/S FOR HYPERGLYCEMIA?
    • WEAKNESS
    • INCREASED THIRST
    • DRY MOUTH
    • FREQUENT URINATION
    • FRUITY ODOR TO BREATH
    • RAPID, WEAK PULSE
    • DEEP RAPID RESPIRATIONS
  65. how should you treat a child with hypotonia?
    • handling: tapping, brushing,vibrating, quick movments, deep pressure, spinning, swinging and bouncing "tensing"
    • environment: loud music, fast rhythms, loud voice, bright colors,and changing activites frequently
  66. how should you treat a child with hypertonia?
    • handling: rocking, firm touch, rhythmic movments, slow movments, stoking, warm water, swaddling "relaxing"
    • environment: consisten sensory input, relaxing music, singing, quiet voice
  67. what is diplegia, hemiplegia, quadriplegia/tetraplegia?
    • dip: both legs involved but trunk and arms less involved
    • hemi: one arm and one leg on same side involved.
    • quad/tetra: all 4 extremities and trunk involved
  68. what are the interventions with children with hypotonia?
    • support all limbs to prevent injury, especially preventing hyperextension of elbow and knee
    • vigorous passive and active movement to increase muscle output
    • active weight bearing to stimulate postural reflexes
  69. what are the interventions with children with hypertonia?
    • hip and knees in flexion greater than 90 to prevent extensor posturing reflex
    • midline positioning to inhibit abnormal reflexes
    • gentle, rhythmic movement to encourage controlled movement
    • active weight bearing with aligned limbs and trunk to allow optimal independence in motor skills
  70. what is isotonic exercise?
    dynamic muscle contraction where resistance is either constant or variable and involves either concentric or eccentric contraction.
  71. what is isokinetic exercise?
    dynamic muscle contraction with speed controlled. resistance is variable and accommodating.
  72. what are the pressure sensitive areas on the AKA amputee?
    • distolateral end of the femur
    • pubic symphysis
    • perineal area
  73. what are the pressure tolerant areas of the AKA amputee?
    • ischial tuberosity
    • gluteals
    • lateral sides of the limb
    • distal end
  74. what are the pressure sensitive areas of the BKA amputee?
    • anterior tibia and tibial crest
    • fibular head and neck
    • fibular nerve
  75. what are the pressure tolerant areas of the BKA amputee?
    • patellar tendon
    • medial tibial pleatu
    • tibial and fibular shafts
    • distal end
  76. what is the rule of thumb for measuring to build a ramp?
    • 1:12
    • for every inch of vertical rise, 12 inchs of ramp is required
  77. what are the standard wheelchair dimensions?
    adult (narrow, slim and wide) hemi/low seat, junior, child, tiny tot
    • adult: 18W 16D 20H
    • narrow: 16W 16D 20H
    • slim: 14W 16D 20H 
    • hemi/low:  _W  _D  17.5H
    • junior: 16W 16D 18.5H
    • child: 14W 11.5D 18.75H
    • tiny tot: 12W 11.5D 19.5H
  78. what are the environment minimum measurements for WC manueverablity?
    • 360 degree turning space 60X60 in
    • 90 degree turning space 36 in
    • doorway width 32-36
  79. what are the recommendation for home measurements for WC manueverablity?
    • counter height high 31 in tall X 24 in wide 
    • inside reach 24 in 
    • steps 7 tall x 11 deep
    • handrails 32 in high
    • bedside clearance 3 ft for transfers 
    • toilet height 17-19 in
    • grab bars from toilet 33-36 in
    • light switches 36-48 in
    • outlets minimum 18 in from floorboard

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Author:
KatyRichman
ID:
321653
Filename:
PTA rogue
Updated:
2016-07-06 13:03:11
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