SGU Q & A 2 thoracic limb 44-48

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SGU Q & A 2 thoracic limb 44-48
2010-08-31 22:43:11
SGU thoracic limb

SGU Q & A 2 thoracic limb pgs44-48
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  1. Describe the clavicle in the dog and cat.
    • Cat: separate, nonarticular bone
    • Dog:rudimentary or absent, embedded in brachiocephalicus m.
  2. What does the spine of the scapula divide?
    Lateral scapula into infraspinous and supraspinous fossae
  3. What is the acromion?
    End of the spine of the scapula
  4. What is the caudal projection of the acromion found in the cat?
    Suprahamate process
  5. What is the glenoid fossa/cavity and its function?
    Shallow cavity of the scapula articulating with the humerus to form the shoulder joint.
  6. What is the supraglenoid tubercle and what is its function?
    Cranial process near the glenoid cavity for the attachment of the biceps brachii muscle.
  7. What and where is the greater tubercle.
    Projection located craniolateral to the head of the humerus-point of the shoulder
  8. What is the intertubercular (bicipital) groove?
    The sulcus between the greater and lesser humeral tubercles for the biceps brachii tendon
  9. What is the condyle of the humerus? How many are there per humeri?
    Entire distal end of the humerus. One.
  10. What arises from the epicondyles of the humerus?
    Lateral (extensor) epicondyle:extensors of forearm; Medial (flexor) epicondyle:flexors.
  11. What foramen is found in canine and feline humeri, and what passes through them?
    • Dog: supratrochlear foramen-nothing
    • Cat:supracondylar foramen-median n. and brachial vessels
  12. What and where is the styloid process of radius?
    Distal pointed end of the radius, medial
  13. What is the function of the olecranon/olecranon tuberosity? What is a common name for it?
    Serves as a lever arm for the extensor muscle of the elbow. Point of the elbow.
  14. Name the depression of the ulna that articulates with the humerus and its proximal and distal ends.
    • Trochlear notch (semilunar notch)
    • Proximal end= anconeal process
    • Distal ends= medial and lateral coronoid processes
  15. What and where is the styloid process of the ulna?
    Distal end of ulna, lateral side
  16. List the parts of the manus from proximal to distal (and the bones of each part)
    Carpus(carpal bones), metacarpus (metacarpal bones), digits(proximal, middle, and distal phalanges and associated sesamoid bones)
  17. What does the term carpus designate?
    Carpal bones and compound joint formed by these bones or the region between the forearm and the metacarpus.
  18. Name the bones of the carpus and indicate where they are in each row.
    • Proximal row form medial to lateral: radial, ulnar and accessory carpal bones.
    • Distal row: numbered from 1-4 from medial to lateral.
  19. Which carpal bone is located laterally and palmarily and is considered a landmark?
    Accessory carpal bone
  20. List the bones of each digits and their locations.
    Proximal middle and distal phalanges(not middle for dew claw),2proximal sesamoid bones (1 for dew claw) on palmar side of metacarpophalangeal joints, 1 dorsal sesamoid bone for digit 1-4.
  21. What is the fingernail-like structure covering the ungual process?
    Horny claw
  22. What is the shelf of the distal phalanx covering the root of the claw?
    Ungual crest
  23. What is the digit (P1,P3, 1 proximal sesamoid)+MtC1 that doesn't reach the ground?
  24. What is the configuration of the shoulder (scapulohumeral, humeral) joint?
    Ball and socket joint (spheroidal)
  25. What type of motion is allowed by the shoulder joint?
    All movements (universal) but mainly flexion and extension.
  26. What protects the biceps tendon in the intertubercular groove?
    Extension of the shoulder joint capsule(connected) acting as a tendon sheath
  27. What stabilizes the shoulder joint?
    No true collateral ligaments, but infraspinatus tendon laterally and subscapularis tendon medially help stabilize.
  28. What bones make up the elbow (cubital) joint?
    Humeral condyle, trochlear notch of ulna, head of radius.
  29. What type of joint is the elbow/cubital joint, and what action is allowed?
    Ginglymus or hinge joint; also compound; flexion and extension.
  30. What powerful ligaments bind sides of all the joints of the limb except the shoulder? How does this effect their movement?
    • lateral and medial collateral ligaments.
    • limits to mainly flexion and extension.
  31. What type of joint is the carpus? what movement does it allow?
    Compound/composite hinge joint;flexion and extension (also gliding and rotation)
  32. List the joints of the carpus and the movement each allows?
    antebrachiocarpal joint:most movement flexion and extension, middle carpal joint:less but considerable extension and flexion, carpometacarpal joint:very little, mainly gliding, intercarpal joints: gliding
  33. list the boundaries of the carpal canal?
    carpal bones (covered by palmer carpal fibrocartilage), accessory carpal bone and flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament)
  34. list the joints of the digits (the bones they are between)
    • metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints (metacarpal bone and proximal phalanx)
    • Proximal interdigital (PIP) (P1 and P2)
    • Distal interdigital (DIP or "claw") joint (P2 and P3)