CH1&4 Assessing Young Children
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stakeholder
people important in the lives of children, especially regarding the assessment of children

assessment
process for gathering information to make decisions

techniques
methods whether formal or informal for gathering assessment information

accountability
being responsible for the proper education of all children

highstakes decision
is any test applied to make lifeaffecting decisions for the educational futures of young children

authentic assessment
determining developmental progress of children through a variety of means, including observations and special problems or situations

raw score
the number of items that a child answered correctly on a test

mean
the arithmetic average of a group of scores

range
the spread of the scores or the difference between the top score and the bottom score on a test

standard deviation
the distance scores depart from the mean

normal curve
bellshaped curve representing the usual distribution of human attributes

standarized test (norm referenced test)
test that interprets a child's performance in comparison to the performance of other children with similar characterisitcs

population
group of individuals on which a standarized test is normed

normative sample
subset of a population that is tested for a standarized test

norms
scores obtained from the testing of a normative sample for a standarized test

criterionreferenced test
a standarized test that compares a child's performance to his or her own progress in a certain skill or behavior

derived score
score obtained by comparing the raw score with the performance of children of known characteristics on a standarized test

ageequivalent score
derived score giving a child's performance as taht which is normal for a certain age

gradeequivalent score
derived score giving a child's performance as tha which is normal for a certain grade

interpolated score
derived score estimated from norm scores because no one with that particular score was actually part of the normative sample

extrapolated score
derived score estimated from norm scores because the raw score is either less than or greater than anyone in th enormative sample

percentile ranks
derived scores indicating the percentage of individuals in the normative group whose test scores fall at or below a given raw score

standard score
is created statistically. this process converts raw scores to numbers that can be used to compare child progress on a particular dimension

scaled score
statistically determined scores that are used to derive total scores or that refer to results on subtests of an instrument

deviation quotients
standard scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of usually 15

normalcurve equivalents
standard scores for group tests; scale has 100 equal parts, mean is usually 50, and standard deviation is usually 21.06

stanines
standard scores with nine unequal bands; bands four, five, and six represent average performance

reliability
consistency, dependability, or stability test results

testretest reliability
ability to get the same results from a test taken twice withing two weeks

interscorer reliability
ability of a test to produce the same results regardless of who administers it

correlation coefficient
degree of relationship between two variables

standard error of measurement
estimate of the amount of variation that can be expected in test scores as a result of reliability correlations

validity
the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure

face validity
whether a test looks as if it is testing what it is supposed to be testing

content validity
extent of how well a test tests the subject matter it is supposed to test

criterionrelated validity
relationship between the scores on a test and another criterion measure

concurrent validity
relationship between a test and another criterion when both are obtained at about the same time

predictive validity
how accurately a test score can be used to estimate performance on some variable or criterion in the future

construct validity
the extent to which a test measures a theoretical characteristiv or trait

convergent validity
is demonstrated when similar instruments measuring similar constructs yield comparable results

treatment validity
the usefulness of test results for planning intervention

social validity
describes the usefulness of assessment information for the teacher in the educational setting