mel

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mel
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32187
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mel
Updated:
2010-09-01 18:43:57
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biology
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human health and biology
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  1. what is the basic unit of life
    cell
  2. composed of many cells types
    multicellular
  3. group of similar cells that perform a common function
    tissues
  4. combo of 2 or more different tissues performing a common function
    organ
  5. made up of groups of related organs; perform specific functions in the body
    organ system
  6. together the organ systems maintain_______ an internal environment for cells that only vaires within certain limits; internal balance in body
    homeostasis
  7. 1 humans are highly organized
    2 humans reproduce, grow and develop
    3 humans have a cultural heritage
    4 humans are a product of an evolutionary process
    5 humans are members of the biosphere
    characteristics of humans
  8. to produce a new individual of the same kind
    reproduce
  9. a process of change that has resulted in the diversity of life
    evolution
  10. 1 aminalia
    2 plantea
    3 fungi
    4 protista
    four kingdoms
  11. an animal with a vertical column
    verebrates
  12. a living newtwork that spans the surface of the earth, atmosphere, soils, and seas
    biosphere
  13. characterized by enrergy flow and chemical cycling
    ecosystem
  14. take in preformed food ex humans
    consumers
  15. produce their own food ex plants
    producers
  16. microorganisms that break down organic matter (waste and dead organisims)
    decomposers
  17. ecosystems cannot function properly unless they remain biologicaly diverse
    true
  18. the death of a species or larger taxonomic group
    extinction
  19. testable statement that is formulated from the observations made
    hypothesis
  20. hypothesis can never be proven true, but they can be proven untrue
    true
  21. steps of scientific method
    • 1 observation
    • 2 hypothesis
    • 3 experiment
    • 4 conclusion
  22. goes through all steps of an experiment, except for what is being tested
    control group
  23. the application of scientific knowledge for a practical purpose
    technology
  24. all matter is composed of basic substances called
    elements
  25. naturally occuring elements
    92
  26. 90% of the body is composed of just 4 elements
    • 1 carbon C
    • 2 nitrogen N
    • 3 oxygen O
    • 4 hydrogen H
  27. the smallest unit of an element that still retains the physical and chemical properties of an element
    atoms
  28. protons and neutrons are located in the
    nucleus
  29. subatomic particles that carry a positive charge
    protons
  30. subatomic particles that carry no charge
    neutrons
  31. subatomic particles that carry a negative charge
    electrons
  32. the number of PROTONS an atom contains
    atomic number
  33. the number of PROTONS plus the number of NEUTRONS an atom has
    atomic mass
  34. the same type of atom that differs in the number of neutrons and therefore the atomic mass
    isotopes
  35. radioactive isotopes are used for medicine
    radioactive isotopes behave the same as stable
    radioactive isotoped detect molecullar changes
    low levels of radiation
  36. radioactive substances harm cells, damage DNA, and cause cancer
    radiation used to sterilizing medical equipment
    high levels of radiation
  37. atoms bonded with each other to form a chemical uit
    molecule
  38. particles that carry either a positive or negative charge, bonds between opposite charges
    ions
  39. attraction between oppositely charged ions resulting in the giving or recieving of an electron
    ionic bonds
  40. atoms share electrons instead of gaining or losing them
    covalent bond
  41. water is the most abundant molecule in living organisms making up about 60-70% of the total body weight
    true
  42. water molecules have polarity- positive and negative ends; O is more negative and H is more positive
    true
  43. occurs when covalently bonded H is positive and attracted to a negative charged atom
    hydrogen bond
  44. molecules that interact with water- love water
    hydrophilic
  45. molecules that do not interact with water- fear water
    hydrophobic
  46. 1 water is a liquid at room temperature
    2 water is a solvent for polar molecules and thereby facillitates chemical reactions
    3 water molecules are cohesive and liquids fill vessels
    4 the tempwearture of water is rises and falls slowly preventing drasric change
    5 water is a high heat of vaporization, keeping the body from overheating
    6 frozen water is LESS dense than liquid water, so it floats
    properties of water
  47. when water molecules dissociate, they release an equal number of ____and ______ ions
    hydrogen and hydroxide
  48. acidic solutions have a _______ H+ concentration
    high
  49. ____ are substances that dissociate in water, releasing H+ ions
    acids
  50. _____ have high OH- concentrations
    basic solutions
  51. used to indicate the acidity and basicity of a solution
    pH scale
  52. pure water has a pH of
    7
  53. basic solutions have a pH scale of
    8-14
  54. acidic solutions have a pH scale of
    0-6
  55. these are called ______ because each is a composed of many subunits
    macromolecules
  56. the removal of water from a water molecule
    dehydration reaction
  57. the addititon of water to a water molecule
    hydrolysis reaction
  58. function for quick and short-term energy storage in all orgainisms
    carbohydrates
  59. simple sugar
    monosaccharides
  60. always contains C and H atoms
    carbohydrates
  61. when 2 monosaccharides are joined together by a dehydration reaction a ______ is formed
    disaccharide
  62. complex carbohydrate that contain many glucose units
    polysaccharides
  63. storage form of glucose in animals
    glycogen
  64. storage form of glucose in plants
    starch
  65. this is found in plant walls
    cellulose
  66. fats, oils, phospholipids, steroids are all considered ____
    lipids
  67. these contain more energy per gram that other biological molecules
    some function as energy storage
    others form a membrane
    lipids
  68. they do not dissolve in water-hydrophobic
    lipids
  69. ___are solids at room temp and are usually of animal origin
    fats
  70. ____ are liquid at room temp and are usually of plant origin
    lard
  71. 1 used for long term energy storage
    2 insulates against heat loss
    3 forms a protective cushion around major organs
    properties of fat
  72. when 1 glycerol molecule reacts with 3 fatty acid molecules ____is formed
    fats and oils
  73. because of 3 part structure, a fat is called a _____
    triglyceride
  74. breaking up of fat globules into smaller droplets
    emulisification
  75. emulsifiers can cause fats to mix with water
    true
  76. fats are emulsified by bile
    true
  77. a carbon-hydrogen chain that ends with the acidic group
    fatty acid
  78. ____ accounts for the solidity of fat a room temp
    saturated fatty acids
  79. _______account for the liquid nature of vegetable oils at room temp
    unsaturated fatty acids
  80. make up the cell membrane
    phospholipids
  81. the head of a phospholipid is _____ while the bottom is ______
    • hydrophilic
    • hydrophobic
  82. these have a backbone of 4 fused C rings; each one differs by the functional groups that are attached to the rings
    steroids
  83. steroids include the hormones testosterone O and estrogen HO
    true
  84. proteins that speed chemical reactions
    enzymes
  85. ___is the subunit that makes up protein
    amino acids
  86. amino acids differ from one another by their ____
    R group
  87. 2 amino acids joined together by a dehydration reaction
    peptide bonds
  88. ______ is a single chain of amino acids
    polypeptide
  89. hydrogen bonding between amino acids causes the polypeptide to form ______
    • alpa helix
    • beta pleated sheet
  90. the final shape of a protein is very important to its function
    true
  91. when proteins are exposed to extremes in heat and pH, they undergo an irreversible change in shape
    denaturation
  92. once a protein loses its normal shape, it is no longer able to perform its usual function (acid curdling milk)
    true
  93. is a molecular complex of 3 types of subunit molecules
    subunits of nucleic acids
    nucleotide
  94. 1 phosphate
    2 pentose sugar
    3 nitrogen-containing base
    nucleotide
  95. makes up the genes and stores into reguarding its replication order
    DNA
  96. an intermediary in the process of protein synthesis
    RNA
  97. DNA has four different types of bases
    A&T G&C
  98. the RNA base ___ replaces the _____
    • U, T
    • A&U
  99. RNA is a singles thread, while DNA is a double helix
  100. sugar in DNA is deoxyribose
    sugar in RNA is ribose
    true
  101. the sequence of the bases is the genetic info that specifies the sequence of amino acids inthe proteins of the cell
    true
  102. the primary energy carrier in cells
    ATP
  103. cells use glucose molecules to make
    ATP molecules
  104. when ATP is broken down ADP is released
    true
  105. 1 all living things are composed of cells
    2 the cell is the basic unit of life
    3 new cells arise only from preexisting cells
    the cell theory
  106. nutrients enter a cell and leave a cell at its surface
    true
  107. surrounds the cell and keeps it intact
    regulates what enters and exits
    plasma membrane
  108. large, centrally located structure
    is the control center of the cell
    nucleus
  109. portion of the cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
    cytoplasm
  110. are contained in the cytoplasma
    are small often membranous structures
    each type of organelle has a specific function
    organelles
  111. a network of interconnected filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm
    maintains cell shape and allows the cell and its contents to move
    cytoskeleton
  112. the plasma membrane is a phosphillipid bilayer with attached or embedded protiens
    true
  113. the _______ says that proteins have a changing pattern within the phospholipid bilayer
    fluid-mosic model
  114. allows only sertain molecules and ions to pass into and out of the cytoplasm freely
    selectively permeable
  115. is the random movement of molecules from the area of HIGHER concentration to the area of LOWER concentration until they are equally distributed
    diffusion
  116. diffusion of water across a plama membrane
    osmosis
  117. equal concentration of solutes and water on both sides of the plasma membrane and cells maintain their shape and size; no water movement
    isotonic
  118. solutions that cause cells to swell or even burst due to intake of water
    hypotonic
  119. refers to disrupted cells
    lysis
  120. disrupted blood cells
    hemolysis
  121. solutions that cause cells to shrink or shrivel due to a loss of water
    hypertonic
  122. refers to the cells that shrivel and shrink in this condition
    crenation
  123. a molecule is transported across the plamsa membrane from the side of HIGHER concentration to the side of LOWER concentration
    facillitated transport
  124. a molecule is moving contraty to the normal direction; from a LOWER concentration to a HIGHER concentration
    active transport
  125. active transport requires a protein carrier and use of cellular energy from the breakdown of ATP; these proteins are often called pumps
    true
  126. ATP is broken down- energy is released- a carrier uses that energy to carry out active transport
    true
  127. a portion of the plama membrane invaginates to envelope a substance, then the membrane pinches off to form a vesicle
    endocytosis
  128. a vehicle fuses with the plasma membrane as a secretion occurs
    exocytosis
  129. stores genetic into that determines he characteristics of a cell
    nucleus
  130. functions to synthesize proteins
    a mix of protiens and rRNA
    ribosomes
  131. studded with ribosomes, proteins are synthesized here and enter the ER where processing and modification begin
    rough ER
  132. synthesizes the phospholipids in membranes, is continuous with the rough ER but does not have attached ribosomes
    smooth ER
  133. contains enzymes that modify proteins and lipids
    makes last minute changes
    golgi appartus
  134. produced by the golgi
    contain hydrolytic digestive enzyems
    breaks things down
    lysosomes
  135. parts of a cell can be digested by its own lysosomes
    autodigestion
  136. are the sites for ATP production
    carry on cellular respiration
    the powerhouse of the cell
    mitochondria
  137. filamentous proteins structures help maintain the shaope and anchors organelles or assist movement
    skeleton of the cell
    cytoskeleton
  138. allows movement
    move by self
    • cilia
    • flagella
  139. ex: sperm cells move by means of flagella
    ex: cells with cilia line the respiratory tract, sweeping debris trapped in mucus back up the throat
    • ture
    • true
  140. all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell
    cellular metabolism
  141. each reaction in a metabolic pathway requires a specific enzyme
    true
  142. no reaction in the path will occur without its enzyme present
    true
  143. when an enzyme speeds up a reaction, the reactant that is involved is called the enzyme's ______
    substrate
  144. enzymes have a specific region called an _____-substrates are brought together so they can react
    active site
  145. enzyme specificity is determined by the shape of the active site
    true
  146. an enzyme and its substrate fit together specifically
    true
  147. nonprotein molecules
    coenyzmes
  148. removes H atoms from substrates
    NAD
  149. NAD is a form of
    dehydrogenase
  150. cellular respiration actually involes 3 parts
    • 1 glycolsis
    • 2 citric acid cycle
    • 3 electron transport chain
  151. the breakdown of glucose to 2 pyruvate molecules
    glycolysis
  152. occurs in the cytoplasm
    glycolysis
  153. energy in glycolysis is used to form 2 ATP molecules
    true
  154. pyruvate is converted to an acetyl group
    prepartory reaction
  155. occurs twice per glucose molecule
    preparatory cycle
  156. cyclical series of reations that gives off CO2 molecules and produces ATP
    citric acid cycle
  157. begins with NAHD2 then consists of molecules that carry eletrons
    electron transort chain
  158. high energy electrons being moved through
    electron transport chain
  159. electron transport chain makes 32 ATP
    true
  160. 36 ATP are produced from 1 glucose molecule
    true
  161. fermentation does not require oxygen is also called ______
    an anaerobic process
  162. if oxygen isnt available electron transport chain becomes ______
    inoperative
  163. fermentation is a cell's way of producting ATP in an anaerobic enviroment
    true

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