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  1. Three Major Areas of Philosophy:
    • Metaphysics
    • Axiology
    • Epistemology
  2. the nature of reality
  3. the nature of values
  4. the nature of knowledge
  5. Concerned with theories of the nature of reality.
  6. The area many people think of when they hear the term philosophy.
  7. Concerned with theories of value
  8. Two major divisions of axiology:
    • Ethics - what is right or wrong
    • Aesthetics - what is beautiful or ugly
  9. Concerned with theories of the nature of knowledge
  10. An attempt to determine what is real
  11. Questions about knowledge and knowing
  12. Procedures for arguing that bring people to valid conclusions
  13. Seeking wisdom about the nature of ethical and aesthetic values
  14. the first systematic philosophy in Western thought…Socrates and Plato, the Socratic method was dialogue
  15. World of matter in constant state of flux, senses are not to be trusted, continually deceive us
  16. Truth is perfect and eternal, but not found in the world of matter, only through the mind
  17. believe that ideas are the only true reality.
  18. We should be concerned primarily with the search for truth. Since truth is perfect and eternal, it cannot be found in the world of matter that is both imperfect and constantly changing.
  19. Regarded as the father of philosophy
    Believed we learned through questioning (the Socratic method)
  20. A student of Socrates
    Known as the father of idealism
    Operated a school named the “Academy”
  21. Believed both boys and girls should be educated and girls should be equals.
  22. The only constant for Plato was
    • mathematics
    • unchangeable
    • eternal
  23. Plato’s method of dialogue engaged in systematic, logical examination of all points of view…ultimately leading to agreement and a synthesis of ideas…this approach known as the _________.
  24. Plato had to do was to teach and convince the people (i.e. men) of his time to use their heads, to think and reflect, to trust their own critical abilities, to move from the cave of fear to the light of day and to really live.
    Allegory of the Cave
  25. He described knowledge of things through a story of prisoners kept in the dark where they could only see shadow of the things and called them as the real things. These prisoners could not turn their heads to see that these shadows coming from a light at the other end of the cave. They did not realize that they only see reflections not the real things in their true forms.
    Allegory of the Cave
  26. Plato also believed that no one could truly be taught what reality is, they have to experience it for themselves. Plato continues that when someone sees the real world for the first time, it will be too bright for the person and they will be confused. But only after spending some time, their mind, like their eyes will adjust to the light(truth).
    Allegory of the Cave
  27. Guy showed them the ______.
    light of truth and reality
  28. Guy as a symbol of ________.
    civilization and knowledge
  29. The Croods stands as a symbol for all ________, including animals.
    uncivilized beings
  30. Born in North Africa (Roman citizen), attended Roman Primary School, at 16 went to Carthage and studied rhetoric, music, geometry, grammar, mathematics
    Augustine (354-430)
  31. Became a grammaticus in his native town, taught rhetoric in Carthage, Rome, Milan while in his 30’s was converted to Christianity, took his holy orders and became a great evangelist and priest and found great favor in the church and became a great religious leader.
  32. People do not create knowledge; God has already created it, but people can discover it through trying to find God.
  33. Women were held in low regard. Only a few people possessed the mental ability to quest for the truth. Therefore most people should rely on the church for knowledge.
    Augustine’s Beliefs
  34. Encouraged the use of summaries, believed teachers should teach through persuasion and by leading impeccable lives, teachers should not expect to increase their worldly stores through teaching, the “stick and fist” were needed to keep students in line since people were wicked (because of Adam).
    Augustine’s Beliefs about Teaching
  35. Idealism has exerted a great amount of influence on ______.
  36. A renown mathematician, wrestled with the question of what was real and did he really exist (perhaps he was a dream). He finally concluded:–“I think, therefore I am”. Thinking and ideas are the ultimate truth.
    Descartes (1596-1650)
  37. Existence is dependent upon some mind to know it, and if there are no minds, nothing would exist unless it is perceived in the mind of God.
    George Berkeley (1685-1753)
  38. “…the greatest and most difficult problem to which a man can devote himself is the problem of education…”. Education should teach students how to think according to principles - moral laws, moral ideals and moral imperatives. Enlightenment is the goal of education
    Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
  39. Evil comes through ignorance, education will lead to the obliteration of evil. Interested in the search for truth through ideas…with truth comes responsibility to enlighten others, “education is transformation: Ideas can change lives.”
  40. Reality, knowledge and value exist independent of the human mind. Trees, sticks and stones exist whether or not there is a human mind to perceive them.
  41. Ideas must be subject to public verification–must be proven through scientific experimentation“Science for the sake of science”
  42. Universal properties of objects remain constant and never change, whereas particular components do change. Need to study nature systematically.
  43. Truth is derived from generalizations
    –Earth is the center of the universe
    Deductive reasoning
  44. Only through studying the material world is it possible to clarify or develop ideas…matter is real independent of ideas
    Generic Notions
  45. A _____ is a system of logic that consists of three parts: (1) a major premise, (2) a minor premise, and (3) a conclusion. All the parts must be correct
  46. Leaders of Realism
    • Aristotle (384-322 BC)
    • Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
    • Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
    • John Locke (1632-1704)
  47. Ideas may be important but a proper study of matter could lead us to better and more distinct ideas.
  48. A path between extremes
    Golden Mean
  49. Body and mind operate together in a balanced whole
    Balance is key
  50. God created matter; therefore it must be ok to learn about it. This view helped lead civilization out of the dark ages, replaced the influence of Augustine
    Aquinas (1225-1274)
  51. Truth was passed from God to Humans by divine revelation, but God also has endowed humans with the reasoning ability to seek out truth.
  52. Challenged Aristotelian logic
    Novum Organum
  53. Science must be concerned with inquiry, pure and simple with no preconceived notions. We need to examine all previously accepted knowledge
    Bacon (1561-1626)
  54. We believe things because of limited experience
    Idol of the Den
  55. We believe things because many people believe them
    Idol of the Tribe
  56. We are mislead by language
    Idol of the Marketplace
  57. Religion and philosophy may prevent us from see the world objectively
    Idol of the Theatre
  58. Known as the father of inductive reasoning–arrive at generalizations from systematic observations of particulars. Died as a result of the only experiment he performed - stuffed a dead chicken with snow to see if it would preserve the flesh, caught a cold and died
    Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
  59. At birth, the mind is a blank sheet of paper - a tabula rasa. All ideas are derived from experience by way of sensation and reflection
    John Locke (1632-1704)
  60. The root of the word Pragmatism is a Greek word meaning “work”. It is primarily a 20th century philosophy developed by Americans. Truth is what works in the real world. We must keep the desired end in mind.Ideas should be applied to solving problems; including social problems.
  61. Leaders in Pragmatism
    • Auguste Comte, 1798-1857
    • Charles Darwin, 1809-1882
    • Charles Sanders Peirce, 1839-1914
    • William James, 1842-1910
    • John Dewey, 1859-1952
  62. Not a pragmatist but emphasized using science to solve social problems
    Auguste Comte
  63. Reality is not found in Being, but in Becoming. Reality is open-ended, in process, with no fixed end.
    Charles Darwin
  64. Widely acknowledged as the father of pragmatism. Wrote an article on “How to make our Ideas Clear” in Popular Science Monthly that is regarded as the basis for pragmatism. True knowledge of anything depends upon verfication of our ideas in actual experience
    Charles Sanders Peirce
  65. The truth of an idea is its “workability”. Truth is not absolute and immutable; rather it is made in actual, real-life
    William James
  66. Need to concentrate on real-life problems–Sought practical solutions for practical problems
    John Dewey
  67. Children are active, organic beings…needing both freedom and responsibility. Ideas are not separate from social conditions, philosophy has a responsibility to society
    John Dewey’s Philosophy
  68. People come first, then ideas. People create ideas. Emphasis on self discovery
  69. Consider questions about the nature of knowledge, truth and meaning but existentialists are concerned with how these things significant within the lived experiences of individuals.
    Traditional philosophies
  70. Education should focus on the needs of individuals, include the nonrational as well as rational, the notion of possibility. Teachers should understand their own “lived world” and help students to understand their world. The need to be “wide awake”…the role of the teacher is intensely personal
  71. How do one’s concerns affect the lives of an individual…the phenomena of consciousness, perception and meaning in an individual’s experience.
    Existentialism and Phenomenology
  72. Phenomenologists
    • Husserl
    • Heidegger
    • Merleau-Ponty
  73. Existentialists
    • Kierkegaard
    • Buber
    • Jaspers
    • Sartre
    • Maxine Greene
  74. ____ as an early form of social consciousness. The origin of philosophy
  75. _________ is a syncretic, but on the other hand, it sets the philosophical questions about the origins and development of the world,life and death.
    Mythological consciousness
  76. _______ was born as a form of social consciousness with the origin of classsociety and the state: Ancient India – I millennium BC, China – VI-V centuries BC, Greece – VII-VI centuries BC.
  77. First scriptures – ____ (Sanskrit: knowledge):(Rigveda,Samaveda…) have been set up by the tribes of Aryans, who came from Central Asia in XVI centuries BC
  78. Philosophical commentary of the Vedas – _______, under which Brahma is the supreme objective reality. Brahman is the unity of a holistic spiritual substance. Atman is an individual soul. Karma is a rebirth of the soul in accordance with the principle of retribution.
  79. ______ literature contains knowledge of the field of agriculture, medicine, astronomy, crafts, military equipment. _____ religion is polytheistic.
  80. _______ originated at the beginning of the millennium, sanctifying social inequality (suffering is insignificant because the phenomenal world is an illusion, the only reality is the spirit of the world
  81. Questioned the Vedic values.
  82. People need to try to overcome suffering and Varna-caste system.
  83. The way of the stars and the goodness, the principle of the universe and human behavior.
  84. “Zhen” – “What do not wish for yourself, do not do to others”
    “Lee” – respectfulness. “Educated person makes demands to themselves, but inferior person makes demands to others”.
    “Cheng-min” – correction of names. “Everyone has to behave according to his own knowledge and the position. The Emperor is the Emperor, the father is the father, the son is the son”.
    “Chun-tzu” – the image of the noble person. “All people can be higly moral, but it is privilege of the people of mental activity. Commoners have to serve the aristocratic elite.
    “Wen” – education“D” – obedience (submission) to elders and positions.
    “Zhong” – devotion (loyalty) to the Emperor, the moral authority of the government. “If the government will not be covetous (greedy), then people will not steal”
  85. A ninth-century Islamic thinker, used Greek ideas to define God as an absolute and transcendent being. God created the world by means of his will. All of reality comes from God.
  86. A ninth-century Islamic philosopher, posited the philosopher-prophet as the one providing the necessary illumination for his society. Also claimed God to be Absolute Being, and that God was the first cause. He based this view on Aristotle’s argument of the unmoved mover.
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2016-07-17 14:04:27
1st Semester
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