Anatomy Ch.5

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lvn2011
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32190
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Anatomy Ch.5
Updated:
2010-09-01 00:57:08
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anatomy integumentary system
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Anatomy & Physiology Ch.5- The Integumentary System & Body Membranes
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  1. integumentary system
    the skin; the largest and most important organ in the body
  2. integument
    refers to the skin
  3. membrane
    thin layer or sheet
  4. epithelial membranes
    composed of epithelial tissue and an underlying layer of connective tissue
  5. connective tissue membranes
    composed largely of various types of connective tissue
  6. three types of epithelial tissue membranes
    cutaneous membrane, serous membranes & mucous membranes
  7. cutaneous membrane
    the skin
  8. serous membranes
    simple squamous epithelium on a connective tissue basement membrane
  9. serous membrane types are...
    parietal & visceral
  10. parietal portion
    line walls of body cavities
  11. visceral portion
    cover organs found in body cavities
  12. Pleurisy
    inflammation of the serous membranes that line the chest cavity and cover the lungs
  13. Peritonitis
    inflammation of the serous membranes in the abdominal cavity that line the walls and cover the abdominal organs
  14. mucous membranes
    line body surfaces that open directly to the exterior; produce mucus, a thick secretion that keeps the membranes soft and moist
  15. mucocutaneous junction
    transitional area that serves as a point of "fusion" where skin and mucous membranes meet
  16. connective tissue membranes
    do not contain epithelial components; synovial membranes and synovial fluid
  17. synovial membranes
    membranes lining the spaces between bones and joints; also line the small, cushionlike sacs called bursae found between many moving body parts
  18. synovial fluid
    a thick, colorless lubricating fluid secreted from synovial membranes
  19. sebaceous glands
    oil-producing gland found in the skin; secrete oil or sebum for hair & skin; level of secretion increases during adolescence; amount of secretion is regulated by sex hormones; sebum in this gland duct may darken to form a blackhead
  20. what are the two primary layers of skin called?
    epidermis & dermis
  21. epidermis
    outermost and thinnest primary layer of skin; composed of several layers of stratified squamous epithelium
  22. stratum germinativum
    innermost layer of cells that continually reproduce; new cells move toward the surface
  23. keratin
    as cells approach the surface they are filled with a tough waterproof protein called keratin; eventually cells flake off of body
  24. stratum corneum
    outermost layer of keratin-filled cells
  25. skin pigment
    gives color to the skin; produced by deepest epidermal layer
  26. melanin
    brown pigment produced by specialized cells in deepest epidermal layer; higher concentration of melanin, the deeper the color of skin
  27. blisters
    caused by breakdown of union between cells or primary layers of skin
  28. subcutaneous tissue a.k.a. hypodermis
    tissue below the layers of skin; made up of loose connective tissue and fat; closest layer to bone
  29. dermal-epidermal junction
    specialized area between two primary skin layers
  30. dermis
    deeper & thicker of the two primary skin layers; composed largely of connective tissue
  31. dermal papillae
    upper papillary layer of dermis characterized by parallel rows of tiny bumps; ridges & grooves in dermis form pattern unique to individual: fingerprints & footprints
  32. Reticular Layer
    deeper area of the dermis filled with a dense network of tough, interlacing, collagenous and stretchable elastic fibers
  33. accessory structures of the skin
    hair, receptors, nails & skin glands
  34. hair
    lanugo, hair follicle, hair papilla, hair root, hair shft, arrector pili
  35. receptors
    specialized nerve endings- make it possible for skin to act as a sense organ
  36. afferent pathway
    from any specialized sensory receptor to the central nervous system
  37. Efferent pathway
    carrying from, as neurons that transmit impulses from the central nervous system to the periphery; opposite of afferent
  38. Meissner's corpuscle
    capable of detecting light touch; close to surface
  39. Pacinian corpuscle
    capable of detecting pressure
  40. nails
    nail root, cuticle, lunula, nail body, free edge; nail bed may change color with change in blood flow
  41. what are the two types of skin glands?
    sweat/ sudoriferous glands & sebaceous glands
  42. sudoriferous glands
    secrete water; consist of Eccrine sweat glands and Apocrine sweat glands
  43. Eccrine sweat gland
    most numerous, important & wide-spread of the sweat glands; produce perspiration which flows out through pores on skin surace; function throughout life & assist in body heat regulation
  44. Apocrine sweat glands
    found primarily in axilla & around genitalia; secrete a thicker secreation quite diff. from eccrine perspiration; breakdown of secretion by skin bacteria produces odor
  45. functions of the skin
    protection, temperature regulation & sense organ activity
  46. Burns
    treatment & recovery or survival depend on total area involved & severity or depth of the burn; body surface area is estimated using the "rule of nines" in adults
  47. "rule of nines"
    body is divided into 11 areas of 9% each; additional 1% located around genitals
  48. Classification of burns
    first-degree (partial thickness) burns: only the surface layers of epidermis; second-degree (parital thickness) burns: involve the deep epidermal layers and always cause injury to the upper layers of the dermis; third-degree(full thickness) burns: characterized by complete destruction of the epidermis and dermis

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