Chem 4, College of the Desert

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Mattyj1388
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Chem 4, College of the Desert
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2011-06-27 11:05:49
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Chapter Chem4
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  1. What are the diatomic elements?
    Br, H, O, N, F, Cl, I
  2. Molarity=
    M= moles / liters
  3. PH scale
    • Acidic solutions PH < 7
    • Neutral solutions PH = 7
    • Basic solutions PH >7
  4. Caloric Values
    • Carbohydrate = 4
    • Fat = 9
    • Protein = 4
  5. Combined gas law
    (P1V1)/(N1T1)= (P2V2)/(N2T2)
  6. 1Atm
    • 760 mmHg
    • 760 torr
    • 14.7 lb / in^2
    • 101325 pa (pascales)
    • 101.325 KPa
  7. Solubility
    Def: Amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent.

    • NaCl does not change with high temp.
    • NaPO4 decreases with high temp < 40
    • Saturated: a solution contains all of the solute that can dissolve (greater then solubility).
    • Unsaturated: when a solute readily dissolves in a solvant.
  8. Solutions
    • Types of particles: Small particles, Ion, atoms, and small molecules.
    • Settling: partivles do not settle.
    • Seperation: particles cannot be seperated by filters or semipermeable membranes.
  9. Colloid
    • Type of Particle: larger molecules or groups of molecules or Ions.
    • Settling: Particles do not settle.
    • Seperation: particles can be seperated by semipermeable membranes but not by filters.
  10. Suspension
    • Types of particles: very large particles that may be visible.
    • Settling: particles settle rapidly.
    • Seperation: Particles can be seperated by filters.
  11. Alkalosis
    Respiratory Alkalosis: CO2 down PH up ( over 7.45)

    Metabolic Alkalosis: H^+ down PH up
  12. Esthers
    • End in "yl"
    • Look Like: -O-
    • ie: CH3-O-CH3 (dimethyl ether)
  13. Ether
    • R - O - R
    • Note: R stands for any number of C chain.
  14. Formic Acid
    Methenoic Acid; found in ant bites, bee stings
  15. Acitic Acid
    Ethanoic Acid; found in Viniger for salads
  16. Chiral Carbon
    Mirror imiges but can not be super imposed

    • Cl
    • |
    • H-C-F
    • |
    • Br
    • (4 different functional groups)
  17. Benedicts Test
    • Aldehyde with an adjacent
    • -OH (hydroxl group)
  18. Alcohol
    • 1-4 are all soluable
    • "Aldehyde, Ketone, and carboxylic acids, alcohols are soluable in H2O so long as C is 1-4 &
    • 5 and 6 C for benzoic are slightly soluable.
  19. Boiling points for Alcohols
    • Lowest => highest
    • Alkane
    • Ether
    • Aldehyde
    • Ketone
    • Alcohol
    • Carboxylic Acid (highest)
  20. Thiol
    • End in Thiol
    • -SH

    • H H
    • | |
    • H-C-C-S-H
    • | |
    • H H
  21. Aldehyde
    • Ending "al"
    • O
    • ||
    • C-H
  22. Ketone
    • Ending "one"
    • O
    • ||
    • R-C-R
  23. Carboxylic Acid
    • O
    • ||
    • R-C-O-H
    • Functional group: alcohol
    • (has an OH)
  24. Ester
    • O
    • ||
    • R-C-O-R
    • Carboxylic acid + alcohol -> ester + water
    • ie: O
    • ||
    • CH3-C-O-H+ H-O-CH3-->
    • O
    • ||
    • H2O + CH3-C-O-CH3
    • (water+methyl ethanoate)
    • ie: perfume, flowers, fruit
  25. Amine
    NH2

    • Alkaloids are bad for you; nicotine, Caffeine, Morphene.
    • Has "N"
    • Basic
    • (likes to take H to become positive Ion)
  26. Amide
    • O
    • ||
    • C-N
    • Are barbituates, low doses= pain killers, high doses = sleep inducers, Are Habit Forming

    Also double bond to "O"
  27. Dehydration of an alcohol
    • H^+
    • Alcohol------->Alkene+H2O
    • (Heat)
  28. Not Superimposable
    Chirality occures when stereoisomers have mirror imiges that cannot be placed on top of each other.
  29. Carboxyl group
    A carbon-oxygen double bond.
  30. Amine classification
    • 1 degree: CH3-NH2
    • 2 degree: CH3-NH-CH3
    • 3 degree: CH3-N-CH3
    • |
    • CH3
  31. Primary Alcohol oxidized
    • OH O O
    • | || ||
    • CH3-CH ==> C-H => C-O-H
    • Aldehyde carb acid

    [aldehyde] then [carboxylic acid]
  32. Secoundary Alcohol oxidized
    • OH
    • ||
    • CH3-CH-CH3=>ketone
  33. Tirtiary alcohol oxidized
    Not able to oxidized
  34. Alkenes
    Roses, lemons, oranges, lavender
  35. Esthers
    Flowers, Fruit
  36. Diatomic
    • Br2
    • H2
    • O2
    • N2
    • F2
    • Cl2
    • I2
  37. Alkanes
    Single bonds C-C

    • Structeral Formulas
    • H H
    • | |
    • H-C-C-H
    • | |
    • H H
    • OR
    • CH3-CH3
  38. Alkene
    • Double bonds
    • C=C
    • OR
    • H H
    • | |
    • H-C=C-H
    • OR
    • CH2=CH2
  39. Alkynes
    Triple bond between Carbons
  40. Alcohols classification
    Have -OH bonded to C

    ie: CH3-CH2-OH
  41. Ether classification
    Has O bonded to 2 C'S

    • Condensed formula:
    • CH3-O-CH3
    • H H
    • | |
    • H-C-O-C-H
    • | |
    • H H
  42. Metric prefixes
    • Tera. 1•10^12
    • Giga. 1•10^9
    • Mega. 1•10^6
    • Kilo. 1•10^3=1000
    • ----- 1
    • Deci. 1•10^-1=0.1
    • Centi. 1•10^-2=0.01
    • Milli. 1•10^-3=0.001
    • Micro. 1•10^-6
    • Nano. 1•10^-9
    • Pico. 1•10^-12
  43. Prefixes for covalent compounds
    • 1. Mono
    • 2. Di
    • 3. Tri
    • 4. Tetra
    • 5. Penta
    • 6. Hexa
    • 7. Hepta
    • 8. Octa
    • 9. Nona
    • 10. Deca
  44. Partial Pressures of Oxygen
    • Gas = O2,
    • Oxygenated Blood = 100, Deoxygenated Blood = 40, Tissue = 0 < 30 (30 or less)
  45. Partial Pressure of Carbon dioxide
    • Gas = CO2
    • Oxygenated Bloob = 40
    • Deoxygenated Blood = 46
    • Tissue = 50 < (50 or greater)
  46. Oxidation
    • Loss of e^-
    • Loss of Hydrogen
    • Gain of Oxygen
  47. Reduction
    • Gain of e^-
    • Gain of Hydrogen
    • Loss of Oxygen
  48. Strong Electrolyte
    • Dissociate: Completly
    • Contents of Solution: Ions only
  49. Week Electrolyte
    • Dissociate: Partally
    • Contents of Solution: Mostly molecules and a few ions
  50. None Electrolytes
    • Dissociate: none
    • Contents in solution: molecules only
  51. STP
    Standard, Temperature, Pressure

    1 Mole = 22.4 L
  52. Enantiomer
    Is a srerioisomer that is a mirror image of another molecule, that can not be superimposed.
  53. Respiritory Acidosis
    • CO2 Up
    • PH Down
    • Note: Standard Ph is 7.35
  54. Metabolic Acidoses
    • H Up
    • PH Down
    • (Inhale)
    • Note: Standard Ph is 7.35
  55. Dimer
    • Carboxylic acids form dimers
    • 2 carboxylic acids combine to each other
  56. Organic
    • Low BP
    • Low MP
    • High Flammability
    • Covalent bonds
    • Not Soluable in H2O
  57. Inorganic
    • High BP
    • High MP
    • Low Flammability
    • Ionic Bonds
    • Soluable in H2O
  58. Ionic Bonds
    • Metal + non-metal
    • Strongest
    • H
  59. Covalent Bonds
    • 2 non-metaloids
    • (can then go to polar or none polar)
  60. Polar Bonds
    • (Always from covalent)
    • Form either Hydrogen or diepole diepole
  61. Hydrogen bonds
    With F, O, N,
  62. Non-polar
    • Disperson forces
    • *Landon Landon (weakest forces)
  63. Diepole
    The seperation of positive and negitive charges in a polar bond indicated by an arrow that is drawn from the more positive atom to the more negative atom.
  64. Diepole-diepole attractions
    Attractive forces between oppositely charged ends of polar molecules.
  65. Methanal
    Formaldehyde
  66. Ethanol
    Acetalaldehyde
  67. Propanal
    Propionaldehyde
  68. Butanal
    Butyraldehyde

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