Chapter 4 Notecards

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  1. 1,3-Diaxial Interaction
    the interaction between two axial groups that are on adjacent carbon atoms
  2. Alkanes
    hydrocarbons having one single (Sigma) bonds between carbon atoms said to be “saturated” because C–C single bonds cannot react to add hydrogen to the molecule
  3. Alkenes
    hydrocarbons having at least one double bond between carbon atoms said to be “unsaturated” because their C=C double bonds can react to add hydrogen to the molecule, yielding an alkane.
  4. Alkyl Group
    the designation given to a fragment of a molecule hypothetically derived from an alkane by removing a hydrogen atom this group’s names end in “-yl”.
  5. Alkynes
    hydrocarbons having at least one triple bond between carbon atoms these are said to be “unsaturated” because C≡C triple bonds can react to add to molecules of hydrogen to the molecule, yielding an alkane.
  6. Allyl Group
    The CH2–CHCH2– group.
  7. Angle Strain
    the increased potential energy of a molecule caused by deformation of a bond angle away from its lowest energy value.
  8. Anti Conformation
  9. Axial Bonds
    the six bonds of a cyclohexane ring that are perpendicular to the general plane of the ring, and that alternate up and down around the ring.
  10. Boat Conformation
    a conformation of cyclohexane that resembles a boat and that has eclipsed bonds along its two sides. It is of higher energy than the chair conformation
  11. Chair Conformation
    the all-staggered confirmation of cyclohexane that has no angle strain or torsional strength and is, therefore, the lowest energy conformation
  12. Cis-Trans Isomerism
    diastereomers that differ in their stereochemistry at adjacent atoms of a double bond or a different atoms of the ring. Cis groups are on the same side of a double bond or ring. Trans groups are on opposite sides of a double bond or ring.
  13. Conformation Of Cyclohexane
    rotations about the carbon-carbon single bonds of cyclohexane can produce different conformations which are intercountry double. The most important are the chair conformation, the boat conformation, and the twist conformation.
  14. Conformational Analysis
    and an analysis of the energy changes that a molecule undergoes as its groups undergo rotation (sometimes only partial) about the single bonds that join them
  15. Conformational Stereoisomers
    stereoisomers differing in space only due to rotations about single (Sigma) bonds.
  16. Conformations
    a particular temporary orientation of a molecule that results from rotations about it single bonds.
  17. Conformer
    a particular staggered confirmation of a molecule.
  18. Constitutional Isomers
    compounds that have the same molecular formula but that differ in their connectivity (i.e., molecules that have the same molecular formula but have their atoms connected in different ways).
  19. Cycloalkanes
    alkanes in which some or all of the carbon atoms are arranged in a ring. Saturated cycloalkanes have the general formulaCNH2N.
  20. Dihedral Angle
    the angle between two atoms (or groups) bonded to Jason atoms, when viewed as a projection down the bond between the adjacent atoms.
  21. Eclipsed Conformation
    a temporary orientation of groups around two atoms joined by a single bond such that the groups directly oppose each other.
  22. Equatorial Bonds
    six bonds of a cyclohexane ring that lie generally around the “equator” of the molecule
  23. Functional Class Nomenclature
    a system for naming compounds that uses two or more words to describe the compound. The final word corresponds to the functional group present; the preceding words, usually listed in alphabetical order, describe the remainder of the molecule.
  24. Gauche Conformations
  25. Homologous Series
    a series of compounds in which each member differs from the next member by a constant unit.
  26. Hydrogenation
    a reaction which hydrogen adds to a double or triple bond. This is often accomplished to the use of a metal catalyst such as platinum, palladium, rhodium, or ruthenium.
  27. Hyperconjugation
    electron Delocalization (via orbital overlap) from a failed bonding orbital to an adjacent unfilled orbital. This generally has a stabilizing effect
  28. Index Of Hydrogen Deficiency
    equals the number of pairs of hydrogen atoms that must be subtracted from the molecular formula of the corresponding alkane to give the molecular formula of the compound under consideration
  29. IUPAC System (systematic nomenclature )
    a set of nomenclature rules overseen by the international Union of pure and applied chemistry that allows every compound to be assigned an unambiguous name.
  30. Newman Projection Formula
    a means of representing the spatial relationships of groups attached to two atoms of a molecule. In writing these, we imagine ourselves feeling the molecule from one end directly along the bond axes joining the two atoms. Bonds that are attached to the front atom are shown as radiating from the center of a circle; those attached to the rare atom are shown as radiating from the edge of the circle
  31. Paraffins
    an old name for an alkane
  32. Potential Energy Diagram
    a graphical plot that measures the changes that occurs as molecules (or atoms) reacts (or interacts). Potential energy is plotted on the vertical axis, and the progress of the reaction on the horizontal axis.
  33. Ring Flip
    the change in a cyclohexane ring (resulting from partial bond rotations) that converts one ring conformation to another. A chair-chair Ring flip converts any Equatorial substituents to an axial substituent and vice versa.
  34. Ring Strain
    the increased potential energy of the cyclic form of a molecule (usually measured by sheets of combustion) when compared to its acyclic form.
  35. Sawhorse Formula
    a chemical formula that depicts the spatial relationships of groups in a molecule in a way similar to dash-wedge formulas.
  36. Staggered Conformation
    a temporary orientation of groups around two atoms joined by a single bond such that the bond of the back atom exactly bisects the angles formed by the bonds of the front atom when shown in a Newman projection formula
  37. Stereoisomers
    compounds with the same molecular formula that differ only in the arrangement of their atoms in space. These have the same connectivity and, therefore, are not constitutional isomers. These are classified further as being either enantiomers or diastereomers
  38. Steric Hindrance
    an effect on relative reaction rates cause when the spatial arrangement of atoms or groups at or near the reacting site hinders or retards reaction.
  39. Substitutive Nomenclature
    a system for naming compounds in which each atom or group, called a substituent, is cited as a prefix or suffix to a parent compound. In the IUPAC system only one group may be cited as a suffix. Locants (usually numbers) are used to tell where the group occurs.
  40. Torsional Barrier
    the barrier to rotation of groups joined by a single bond caused by the potions between the aligned electron pairs in the eclipse form
  41. Torsional Strain
    the strain associated with an eclipsed conformation of a molecule; his cause by repulsion between the aligned electron pairs of the eclipsed bonds.
  42. Vinyl Group
    The CH2–CH– group.

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rtapp08
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Chapter 4 Notecards
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2016-07-17 01:36:20
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Chapter 4 Notecards
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Chapter 4 Nomenclature and Conformations of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
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