Chem 5, College of the Desert.txt

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Mattyj1388
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Chem 5, College of the Desert.txt
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2012-07-18 17:09:08
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Chapter12 Chem5
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  1. ´╗┐Names of Alkanes
    • Methane
    • Ethane
    • Propane
    • Butane
    • Pentane
    • Hexane
    • Heptane
    • Octane
    • Nonane
    • Decane
  2. Combustion
    The reaction of an alkane with oxygen. An oxidation reaction that commonly takes place in a controlled manner in an engine or furnace.
  3. Cycloalkanes
    An alkane that contains a ring of Carbon atoms.

    Alkanes which contain rings of Carbon atoms, are also well known and are widespread throughout nature.
  4. Carbon
    Is a tetravalent, always forms four bonds.
  5. Organic molecules
    • •Has covalent bonds
    • •Contain polar covalent bonds when carbonbonds to an electronegative element on the right side of the periodic table.
    • •Have specific three-dimensional shapes.
    • •Often contain hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, in addition to carbon.
  6. Carbon
    Forms multiple covalent bonds by sharing more then two electrons with a neighboring atom.
  7. Hydrocarbons
    Organic compounds that contain only Carbon and Hydrogen.
  8. Functional Group
    A functional group is an atom or group of atoms that has a characteristic physical and chemical behavior.
  9. Akanes
    Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds belong to the family of organic molecules.
  10. Isomers
    Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas.
  11. Straight-chain alkanes
    Compounds with all their carbons connected in a continuous chain.
  12. Branch-chain alkanes
    Those with branching connection of Carbons.
  13. Constitutional isomers
    Compounds with the same molecular formula but different connections among their constituent atoms.
  14. Condensed structures
    • ie: CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3
    • Show the essential information about which functional groups are present and how atoms are connected.
  15. Line Structures
    Are structures in which the symbols C and H do not appear.
  16. Prefix
    Where substituents are located.
  17. Parent
    How many Carbons.
  18. Suffix
    What family does the molecule belong to.
  19. Propyl group
    The straight-chain alkyl group --CH2-CH2-CH3.
  20. Isopropyl group
    The branched-chain alkyl group --CH(Ch3)2.
  21. Primary (1) Carbon atom
    A Carbon atom with 1 other carbon attached to it.
  22. Secondary (2) Carbon atom
    A Carbon atom with 2 other carbons attached to it.
  23. Tertiary (3) Carbon atom
    A Carbon atom with 3 other carbons attached to it.
  24. Quaternary (4) Carbon atom
    A Carbon atom with 4 other carbons attached to it.
  25. Boiling and melting points associated with # of Carbons
    Lower boiling and melting points with fewer carbons; higher melting and boiling points for more Carbons.
  26. Cyclopropane
    Triangle
  27. Cyclobutane
    Square
  28. Cyclopentane
    Pentagon
  29. Cyclohexane
    Hexagon
  30. Cycloheptane
    Heptagon
  31. Organic elements
    S,H,N,O,P,S
  32. Alkane
    Contains only C-H and C-C single bonds
  33. Alkene
    • | |
    • C=C.
    • | |
    • Double bond between C's
  34. Alkyne
    C to C triple bond
  35. Aromatic
    Benzene ring

    Equation: CnHn
  36. Alkyl halide
    • |
    • -C-X
    • |
    • X= F,Cl, Br, I
  37. Alcohol
    • |
    • -C-O-H
    • |
  38. Ether
    • | |
    • -C-O-C-
    • | |
  39. Amine
    • | |
    • -C-N-
    • |
  40. Aldehyde
    • O
    • | ||
    • -C-C-H
    • |
  41. Ketone
    • O
    • | || |
    • -C-C-C-
    • | |
  42. Carboxylic Acid
    • O
    • | ||
    • -C-C-OH
    • |
  43. Anhydride
    • O O
    • | || || |
    • -C-C-O-C-C-
    • | |
  44. Ester
    • O
    • | || |
    • -C-C-O-C-
    • | |
  45. Amide
    • O
    • | ||
    • -C-C-NH2
    • |
  46. Tetravalent
    4 bonds
  47. Aromaticy
    Contains benzene ring and structures
  48. Aliphatic
    Contains no benzene ring, also does not have to be cyclo.
  49. Saturated hydrocarbons
    Only single bonds between C'S, Aka: most H bonds.
  50. Unsaturated hydrocarbons
    Contain at least one C=C if not more and/ or triple bond
  51. n-propyl
    CH3CH2CH2--
  52. Isopropyl
    • CH3
    • |
    • CH3CH--
  53. n-Butyl
    CH3CH2CH2CH2--
  54. sec-Butyl
    • |
    • CH3CHCH2CH3
  55. Isobutyl
    • CH3
    • |
    • CH3CHCH2--
  56. tert-Butyl
    • |
    • CH3CCH
    • |
    • CH3
  57. Formula for cycloalkanes
    C(n)H(2n)

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