Chem 5, College of the Desert.txt

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Mattyj1388
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32197
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Chem 5, College of the Desert.txt
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2011-06-23 18:21:45
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Chapter13 Chem5
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Chapter 13
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  1. Hydrogenation
    • Addition of hydrogen to break
    • C=C and triple bonds.

    ie: CH3CH=CHCH3 + H2 <=>
  2. Saturated
    • Alkanes
    • A molecule whose carbon atoms bond to the maximum number of Hydrogen atoms.
  3. Unsaturated
    A molecule that contains a carbon-carbon multiple bond to which more hydrogen atoms can be added.
  4. Alkene
    A hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon double bond.
  5. Alkyne
    A hydrocarbon that contains a carbon-carbon triple bond.
  6. Cis-Trans isomer
    Alkenes that have the same connections between atoms but differ in their three-dimensional structures because of the way that groups attach to different sides of the double bond.
  7. Addition reaction
    A general reaction type in which a substance X-Y adds to the multiple bond of an unsaturated reactant to yield a saturated product that has only single bonds.
  8. Elimination reaction
    A general reaction type in which a saturated reactant yields an unsaturated product by losing groups from two adjacent carbons.
  9. Substitution reaction
    A general reaction type in which an atom or group of atoms in a molecule is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.
  10. Rearranged reaction
    A general reaction type in which a molecule undergoes bond reorganization to yield an isomer.
  11. Hydrogenation
    The addition of H2 to a multiple bond to give a saturated product.
  12. Halogenation
    The addition of Cl2 or Br2 to a multiple bond to give a dihalide product.
  13. Hydrohalogenation
    The addition of HCl or HBr to a multiple bond to give an alkyl halide product.
  14. Hydration
    The addition of water to a multiple bond to give an alcohol product.
  15. Reaction mechanism
    A description of the individual steps by which old bonds are broken and new bonds are formed in a reaction.
  16. Polymer
    A large molecule formed by the repetitive bonding together of many smaller molecules.
  17. Monomer
    A small molecule that is used to prepare a polymer.
  18. Ethylene
    • H2C=CH2
    • Polyethylene
    • Uses: packaging, bottles
  19. Propylene
    • H2C=CH-CH3
    • Polypropylene
    • Uses: bottles, rope, pails, medical tubing
  20. Vinyl Chloridey
    • H2C=CH-Cl
    • Poly(vinyl chloride)
    • Uses: Isulation, plastic pipe
  21. Styrene
    • H2C=CH-(benzene ring)
    • Polystyrene
    • Uses: Foams and molded plastics
  22. Styrene and Buradiene
    • H2C=CH-(benzene ring)
    • and H2C=CHCH=CH2
    • Styrene-butadiene rubber(SBR)
    • Uses: synthetic rubber for tires.
  23. Acrylonitrile
    • H2C=CH-C(triple)N
    • Orlon, Acrilan
    • Uses: fibers, outdoor carpeting
  24. Methyl (methacrylate)
    • O
    • ||
    • H2C=CCOCH3
    • |
    • CH3
    • Plexiglas, lucite
    • Uses: Windows, contact lenses, fber optics
  25. Tetrafluoroethylene
    • F2C=CF2
    • Teflon
    • Uses: nonstick coatings, bearings, replacement heart valves and blood vessels
  26. Aromatic
    The class of compounds containing benzene-like rings.
  27. Resonance
    The phenomenon where the true structure od a molecule is an average among two or more conventional structures.
  28. Toluene
    A benzene ring with an attached -CH3
  29. Phenol
    A benzene ring with an attached -OH
  30. Aniline
    A benzene ring with an attached -NH2
  31. Para-Xylene
    A benzene ring with two attached -CH3 on oppisite sides of the ring of each other.
  32. Benzoic acid
    • A bezene ring with a caboxilic acid attached
    • O
    • ||
    • -C-OH
  33. Benzaldehyde
    • A benzene ring with an attached aldehyde
    • O
    • ||
    • -C-H
  34. Phenyl
    The C6H5- group
  35. Nitration
    The substitution of a nitro group (-NO2) for a hydrogen on an aromatic ring.
  36. Halogenation
    The substitution oh a halogen group (-X) for a hydrogen on an aromatic ring.
  37. Sulfonation
    The substitution
  38. Cycloalkene
    A cyclic hydrocarbon that contains a double bond.
  39. Markovnikov's Rule
    In the addition of HX to an alkene, the H attaches to the double-bond carbon that has the larger number of H atoms directly attached to it, and the X attaches to the Carbon that has the smaller number of H atoms attached.

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