MAN 4240

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MAN 4240
2010-09-20 12:40:29
organizational behavior vocab

Exam 1 Vocab
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  1. Study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations. ch 1
    Organizational behavior (OB)
  2. Groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose. ch 1
  3. Broad concept represented by several perspectives including the organization's fit w/the external environment, interal-subsystems configuration for high performance, emphasis on organizational learning, & ability to satisfy needs of key stakeholders. ch 1
    Organizational effectiveness
  4. Perspective which holds that organizations depend on the external environment for resources, affect that environment through their output, & consist of internal subsystems that transform inputs to outputs. ch 1
    Open systems
  5. Amount of outputs relative to inputs in the organization's transformation process. ch 1
    Organizational efficiency (also called productivity)
  6. Cluster of practices to improve organizational efficiency by continuously reducing waste, unevenness, & overburden in the production process. ch 1
    Lean management
  7. Perspective which holds that organizational effectiveness depends on the organization's capacity to acquire, share, use, and store valuable knowledge. ch 1
    Organizational learning
  8. Ability to recognize the value of new info, assimilate it, & use it for value-added activities. ch 1
    Absorptive capacity
  9. Company's stock of knowledge, including human capital, structural capital, & relationship capital. ch 1
    Intellectual capital
  10. Stock of knowledge, skills, and abilities among employees that provides economic value to the organization. ch 1
    Human capital
  11. Storage & preservation of intellectual capital. ch 1
    Organizational memory
  12. Perspective which holds that effective organization incorporate several workplace practices that leverage the potential of human capital. ch 1
    High-performance work practices (HPWP)
  13. Individuals, organizations, & other entities that affect, or are affected by, the organization's objectives & actions. ch 1
  14. Relatively stable, evaluative beliefs that guide a person's preferences for outcomes/courses of action in a variety of situations. ch 1
  15. Study of moral principles/values that determine whether actions are right/wrong & outcomes are good/bad. ch 1
  16. Organizational activities intended to benefit society & the environment beyond the firm's immediate financial interests/legal obligations. ch 1
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
  17. Various forms of cooperation & helpfulness to others that support the organization's social & psychological context. ch 1
    Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs)
  18. Voluntary behaviors that have the potential to directly/indirectly harm the organization. ch 1
    Counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs)
  19. Ecomonic, social, & cultural connectivity w/people in other parts of the world. ch 1
  20. Observable demographic/physiological differences in people, such as their race, ethnicity, gender, age, & physical disabilities. ch 1
    Surface-level diversity
  21. Differences in the psychological characteristics of employees, including personalities, beliefs, values, & attitudes. ch 1
    Deep-level diversity
  22. Degree to which a person minimizes conflict between work & nonwork demands. ch 1
    Work-life balance
  23. Work performed away from the traditional physical workplace by means of info technology. ch 1
    Virtual work
  24. Practice of making decisions & taking actions based on research evidence. ch 1
    Evidence-based management
  25. Forces within a person that affect his/her direction, intensity, & persistence of voluntary behavior. ch 2
  26. Natural aptitudes & learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task. ch 2
  27. Skills, knowledge, aptitudes, & other personal characteristics that lead to superior performance. ch 2
  28. Extent to which people understand the job duties (roles) assigned to or expected of them. ch 2
    Role perceptions
  29. Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, & behaviors that characterize a person, along w/the psychological processes behind those characteristics. ch 2
  30. 5 abstract dimensions representing most personality traits: conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience, agreeableness, & extroversion. ch 2
    Five factor model (FFM)
  31. Personality dimension describing people who are careful, dependable, & self-disciplined. ch 2
  32. Personality dimension describing people w/high levels of anxiety, hostility, depression, & self-consciousness. ch 2
  33. Personality dimension describing people who are outgoing, talkative, sociable, & assertive. ch 2
  34. Instrument designated to measure the elements of Jungian personality theory, particularly preferences regarding perceiving & judging info. ch 2
    Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  35. Individual's self-beliefs & self-evaluations. ch 2
  36. Person's belief that he/she has the ability, motivation, correct role perceptions, & favorable situation to complete a task successfully. ch 2
  37. Person's general belief about the amount of control he/she has over personal life events. ch 2
    Locus of control
  38. Theory that explains self-concept in terms of the person's unique characteristics (personal identity) & membership in various social groups (social identity). ch 2
    Social identity theory
  39. Cross-cultural value describing the degree to which people in culture emphasize independence & personal uniqueness. ch 2
  40. Cross-cultural value describing the degree to which people in a culture emphasize duty to groups to which people belong & to group harmony. ch 2
  41. Cross-cultural value describing the degree to whcih people in a culture accept unequal distribution of power in a society. ch 2
    Power distance
  42. Cross-cultural value describing the degree to which people in a culture tolerate ambiguity (low uncertainty avoidance) or feel threatened by ambiguity & uncertainty (high uncertainty avoidance). ch 2
    Uncertainty avoidance
  43. Cross-cultural value describing the degree to which people in a culture emphasize competitive versus cooperative relations w/other people. ch 2
    Achievement-nurturing orientation
  44. Degree to which an issue demands the application of ethical principles. ch 2
    Moral intensity
  45. Personal characteristic that enables people to recognize the presence of an ethical issue & determine its relative importance. ch 2
    Ethical sensitivity
  46. Capacity for complex perceiving and thinking characterized by superior awareness of and openness to different ways that others perceive their environment. ch 3
    Global mindset
  47. Process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us. ch 3
  48. Process of attending to some information received by our senses and ignoring other information. ch 3
    Selective attention
  49. Organizing people & objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our longterm memory. ch 3
    Categorical thinking
  50. Visual or relational images in our mind that represent the external world. ch 3
    Mental models
  51. Process of assigning traits to people on the basis of their membership in a social category. ch 3
  52. Perceptual process of deciding whether an observed behavior or event is caused largely by internal or external factors. ch 3
    Attribution process
  53. Tendency to see the person rather than the situation as the main cause of that person's behavior. ch 3
    Fundamental attribution error
  54. Tendency to attribute our favorable outcomes to internal factors and our failures to external factors. ch 3
    Self-serving bias
  55. Perceptual process in which out expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations. ch 3
    Self-fulfilling prophecy
  56. Perspective of organizational behavior that focuses on building positive qualities and traits within individuals or institutions as opposed to focusing on what is wrong with them. ch 3
    Positive organizational behavior
  57. Perceptual erro whereby our general impression of a person, usually based on one prominent characteristic, colors our perception of other characteristics of that person. ch 3
    Halo effect
  58. Perceptual error in which we quickly form an opinion of people on the basis of the first information we receive about them. ch 3
    Primacy effect
  59. Perceptual error in which the most recent information dominates our perception of others. ch 3
    Recency effect
  60. Perceptual error in which we overestimate the extent to which other have beliefs and characteristics similar to our own. ch 3
    False-consensus effect
  61. Model of mutual understanding that encourages disclosure & feedback to increase our own open area & reduce the blind, hidden, & unknown areas. ch 3
    Johari Window
  62. Theory stating that the more we interact with someone, the less prejudiced or perceptually biased we will be against that person. ch 3
    Contact hypothesis
  63. Person's understanding of & sensitivity to the feelings, thoughts, and situations of others. ch 3
  64. Relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral tendency) that occurs as a result of a person's interaction with the environment. ch 3
  65. Knowledge that is embedded in our actions & ways of thinking & is transmitted only through observation & experience. ch 3
    Tacit knowledge
  66. Theory that explains learning in terms of the antecedents & consequences of behavior. ch 3
    Behavior modification
  67. Theory stating that much learning occurs by observing others & then modeling the behaviors that lead to favorable outcomes & avoiding behaviors that lead to punishing consequences. ch 3
    Social learning theory
  68. Reinforcement that occurs when an employee has control over a reinforcer but doesn't "take" it until completing a self-set goal. ch 3
  69. Individual attitude & organizational culture in which people welcome new learning opportunities, actively experiment w/new ideas & practices, view reasonable mistakes as a natural part of the learning process, & continuously question past practices. ch 3
    Learning orientation
  70. Physiological, behavioral, & psychological episodes experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness. ch 4
  71. Cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, & behavioral intentions toward a person, object, or event. ch 4
  72. Condition that occurs when we perceive an inconsistency between our beliefs, feelings, & behavior. ch 4
    Cognitive dissonance
  73. Effort, planning, & control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. ch 4
    Emotional labor
  74. Conflict between required & true emotions. ch 4
    Emotional dissonance
  75. Set of abilities to perceive & express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand & reason w/emotion, & regulate emotion in oneself & others. ch4
    Emtional intelligence (EI)
  76. Person's evaluation of his/her job & work context. ch 4
    Job satisfaction
  77. 4 ways that employees respond to job dissatisfaction. ch 4
    Exit-voice-loyalty-neglect (EVLN) model
  78. Employee's emotional attachment to, identification with, & involvement in a particular organization. ch 4
    Organizational (affective) commitment
  79. Employee's calculative attachment to the organization, whereby the employee is motivated to stay only b/c leaving would be costly. ch 4
    Continuance commitment
  80. Positive expectations one person has toward another person in situations involving risk. ch 4
  81. Adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to a person's well-being. ch 4
  82. Model of the stress experience, consisting of 3 stages: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion. ch 4
    General adaptation syndrome
  83. Process of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, & reduced personal accomplishment that results from prolonged exposure to stressors. ch 4
    Job burnout
  84. Any environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on a person. ch4
  85. Repeated & hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions, or gestures that affect an employee's dignity or psychological or physical integrity & that result in a harmful work environment for the employee. ch 4
    Psychological harassment
  86. Unwelcome conduct of sexual nature that detrimentally affects the work environment or leads to adverse job-related consequences for its victims. ch 4
    Sexual harassment
  87. Capacity of individuals to cope successfully in the face of significant change, adversity, or risk. ch 4
  88. Person who is highly involved in work, feels compelled to work, & has a low enjoyment of work. ch 4