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Adverb Clause "flag" Word
Any Subordinating Conjunction
Adjective Clause "flag" Word
Noun Clause "flag" Words
That type, Wh- type
Adverb Clauses must begin with a Subordinating Conjunction. They operate very much the same way as single-word adverbs, all the way down to the adverb/verb test.
Ex. Modifying Verbs: I ordered a whole pizza because I had skipped lunch.
Modifying Adjectives: I'm sorry that we missed your call last night.
Modifying Adverbs: We did better than we thought we would.
Adverb Clauses that modify Verbs
As usual for adverbs, this is their most common use, and they follow the adverb/verb test. They also have the largest number of Subordinating Conjunctions. Here's a list of broad categories:
- Time: after, as, as soon as, before, even after, even before, since (meaning "from when"), until, when, whenever, while
- Place: everyplace, everywhere, where, wherever
- Manner: as, as if, as though
- Cause: as, because, inasmuch, since, so that
- Condition: if, on condition that, provided that, until
- Concession: although, even though, though
Adverb Clauses that modify Adjectives
- Adverb Clauses can only modify Predicate Adjectives, not adjectives used to modify nouns. There are two patterns depending on the predicate adjective being modified.
Predicate Adjective not in its comparative form uses the Conjunctive Adverb, "that"
Predicated Adjective in its comparative form uses the Conjunctive Adverb "than"
Ex. Base-form pred. adj. + (that) + independent clause:
We were glad (that) you could come.
I am afraid (that) it might rain.
It is unbelievable (that) anyone would follow religion.
Comparative-form pred. adj. + (that) + independent clause:It is later than you think it is
The dinner was more formal than I had expected.
The movie was more frightening than the book.
Adverb Clauses that modify other Adverbs