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What is anatomy?
The study of structure and their relationships to one another.
How many subdivisions does anatomy have and what are they?
3 Gross or macroscopic Anatomy, Microscopic Anatomy and Developmental Anatomy
What is gross or macroscopic anatomy?
- study of large body structures (e.g., heart, lungs and Kidneys )
- Regional Anatomy- study structures like muscles, bones, nerves etc. in a particular region of the body that are examined at the same time.
- Surface Anatomy-study of internal structures related to skin surface (e.g., blood vessels to feel pulses)
- Systemic Anatomy- study of body structure system by system (e.g., cardiovascular -examine the heart and blood vessels of the entire body)
What is Microscopic Anatomy?
the study of the structures too small to be seen with naked eyes Cytology- study of cells of the body Histology- study of tissues
what is Developmental Anatomy?
- study of structural changes that occur throughout the life span
- Embryology- study of developmental changes that occur before birth
What are five things one must know to study anatomy?
- Mastery of anatomical terminology(name of body parts and how they are related)
- Observation (naked eye or microscope)
- Palpation (feeling organs with hands)
- Auscultation (listening to organ sounds with stethoscope)
What is Physiology?
The study of the function of the body’s structural machinery it Considers the operation of specific organ systems & Focuses on the functions of the body, often at the cellular or molecular level
what are the subdivisions of physiology based on?
Subdivisions of physiology are based on organ systems (e.g., renal –study of kidney function or cardiovascular physiology – study the operation of heart and blood vessels).
What must one understand to study physiology?
one must understand basic physical principles (e.g., electrical currents, pressure, and movement) as well as basic chemical principles
What is the Function vs Structure Principle of Complementarity
- Anatomy and physiology are inseparable.
- Function always reflects structure
- What a structure can do depends on its specific form.
- This key concept is called the Principle of Complementarity of structure and function
What are the Six levels of structural Organization?
- Human body is very organized, from the smallest chemical level to whole organism level
- 1.Chemical level: atoms, molecules, and organelles= Atoms combine to form molecules
- 2.Cellular level: single cell=Cells are made up of molecules
- 3.Tissue level: groups of similar cells=Tissues consist of similar types of cells.
- 4.Organ level: contains two or more types of tissues=Organs are made up of different types of tissues.
- 5.Organ system level: organs that work closely together= Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely
- 6.Organismal level: all organ systems combined to make the whole organism=The human organism is made up of many organ systems.
What are the 8 functional characteristic necessary to maintain human life?
- 1.Maintaining boundaries between internal and external environments. ex.Plasma membranes Skin
- 2.Movement (contractility)Of body parts (skeletal muscle)Of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle
- 3.Responsiveness: The ability to sense and respond to stimuli
- ex. Withdrawal reflex and Control of breathing rate
- 4.Digestion Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs Absorption of simple molecules into blood
- 5.Metabolism: All chemical reactions that occur in body cells. ex. Catabolism and anabolism
- 6.Excretion: The removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion
- Ex., carbon dioxide, feces
- 7.Reproduction Cellular division for growth or repair Production of offspring
- 8.Growth: Increase in size of a body part or of organism
Why are Organ systems are designed?
to meet the survival needs of individual cells of multicellular humans functioning and alive to maintain life.
What ate The 11 organ systems that work together to maintain life?
- 1.Integumentary System
- 2.Skeletal System
- 3.Muscular System
- 4.Nervous System
- 5.Endocrine System
- 6.Cardiovascular System
- 7.Lymphatic System
- 8.Respiratory System
- 9.Digestive System
- 10.Urinary System
- 11.Reproductive System (Male & Female)
what is the function of Integumentary System?
Integumentary System consist of the hair, skin and nails= it forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.
What is the function of the Skeletal System?
Skeletal System consist of the joints and bones= it Protects and supports body organs, and provide the framework muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals.
What is the function of the Muscular System?
contains skeletal muscles= it Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains posture, and produces heat.
What is the function of the Nervous System?
Consist of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves=to act As a fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.
what id the function of the Endocrine System?
consist of the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland= to secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
what is the function of the Cardiovascular System?
made up of the blood vessels and the heart in the Cardiovascular System the Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood.
what is the function of the Lymphatic System/Immunity?
Made up of the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, thoracic duct, red bone marrow, and lymphatic vessels= the Lymphatic System/Immunity: Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.
what is the function of the Respiratory System?
consist of the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus and lungs, and nasal cavity to Keep blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs
What is the function of the digestive system?
consist of the ORAL CAVITY, ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, SMALL INTESTINE, LARGE INTESTINE, ANUS, rectum, and Liver the digestive system Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
What is the function of the urinary system?
using the kidney, urethra, urinary bladder, and the ureter the Urinary System Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood
what is the Male reproductive system function
using the penis, scrotum, testes, ductus deferens, and prostate gland the Male Reproductive System: Overall function is production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn.
what is the function of the female reproductive system?
made of the mammary glands, uterine tube, ovary, vagina, and uterus the female Reproductive System Overall function is production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn.
What are the 6 factorial needs for human survival that must be in appropriate amounts since too much or too little can be harmful
- Normal body temperature
- Appropriate atmospheric pressure
What is the 1st survival need?
- Nutrients for energy and cell building of
- Carbohydrates – energy fuel for the cells
- Fats – reserve of energy rich fuel
- Proteins – essential for building cell structures
- Minerals & Vitamins – required for chemical reactions in the cells & for oxygen transport in the blood
what is the 2nd survival need?
- Oxygen Essential for energy release (ATP production)
- The body can survive only a few minutes without oxygen
what is the 3rd survival need?
3.Water== Most abundant chemical substance in the body 60-80% of body weight Provides the watery environment needed for chemical reactions and Also is fluid base for secretions and excretions
What is the 4th survival need?
4.Normal body temperature Must be maintained at all times – because it increase or decrease cause death
What is the 5th survival need?
5.Appropriate atmospheric pressure For adequate breathing and gas exchange in the lungs
What is the 6th survival need?
- Homeostasis (very Important)- Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes
- The internal environment of the body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium
- Chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis
- Major theme throughout the body
- Disturbance of homeostasis Increases the risk of disease
- Maintained by contributions of all organ systems
What are 4 Homeostatic Controls?
- Body must constantly be monitored and regulated to maintain homeostasis
- Nervous and endocrine systems, as well as other systems, play a major role in maintaining homeostasis
- Variables are factors that can change (blood sugar, body temperature, blood volume, etc.
- Homeostatic control of variables involves three components: receptor, control center, and effector
what are Two types of feedback mechanisms and examples?
- negative= the response reduces or shuts off the original stimulus
- Regulation of body temperature (a nervous system mechanism)
- Regulation of blood glucose by insulin (an endocrine system mechanism)
- Receptors sense increased blood glucose (blood sugar)...Pancreas (control center) secretes insulin into the blood...Insulin causes body cells (effectors) to absorb more glucose, which decreases blood glucose levels
Positive Feedback mechanism
Negative feedback mechanisms
what is Homeostatic Imbalance
- Disturbance of homeostasis
- Increases risk of disease
- Contributes to changes associated with aging
- Control systems become less efficient
- If negative feedback mechanisms become overwhelmed, destructive positive feedback mechanisms may take over
- Heart failure
what is Positive Feedback mechanism?
- The response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus
- May exhibit cascade or amplifying effects
- Usually controls infrequent events e.g.
- Enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin
- Platelet plug formation and blood clotting
What are the 3 interdependent components of control homeostatic mechanisms?
- 1.Receptor (sensor)
- Monitors the environment
- Responds to stimuli (changes in controlled variables)
- 2.Control center
- Determines the set point at which the variable is maintained
- Receives input from receptor
- Determines appropriate response
- Receives output from control center
- Provides the means to respond
- Response acts to reduce stimulus or enhance the stimulus – through feedback mechanism by Reduce stimulus – negative feedback or Enhance stimulus – positive feedback
What is the body organization ranges from atom to the entire organism?
- organ system
What is the role of the effector in homeostatic regulation?
Respond to the output of the control center
What is the name of the serous membrane that covers the surface of the heart?
Homeostasis refers to:
the existence of a stable internal environment
Moving from the wrist toward the elbow is an example of moving in a _____ direction.
The process of choosing one sectional plane and making a series of sections at small intervals is called:
The procedure used to monitor circulatory pathways using the radiodense dyes produces an X-ray image known as:
Damage at the cellular, tissue, or organ level often affects the entire system. This supports the view that:
each level is totally dependent on the other
If the temperature of the body climbs above 99º F, negative feedback is triggered by:
an increased heat loss through enhanced blood blow to the skin and sweating
An echogram is produced by _____ technology.
The spinal cord is __________ to the esophagus.
Blood flow in specific organs is monitored by a ____ scan.
Ipsilateral and Contralateral
- When two structures are ipsilateral, they are present on the same side of the body. For example, right hand and right foot are ipsilateral.
- When two structures are contralateral, they are present on the opposite sides of the body. For example, right hand and left foot are contralateral.
Bilateral and Unilateral
- Paired structures that have right and left members are called bilateral. For example, kidneys.
- Structures that are present on one side only are called unilateral. For example, spleen.
It is the position in which a person is lying on his back with the hips and knees flexed and thighs apart. This position is used for vaginal examination, childbirth, etc.
In addition to the two main body cavities, what are the body has several smaller cavities that are exposed to environment and one not exposed.
- Oral and digestive cavities
- Nasal cavity
- Orbital cavities
- Middle ear cavities
- Not exposed to environment is the Synovial cavities: joint cavities
why do we have to know correct anatomical terms?
Correct anatomical terminology allows people to communicate effectively and accurately with one another. It also allows for the proper recording of medical ailments
Principle of complementarity of structure and function what quadrant is it in?
Bones can support and protect body organs because they contain hard mineral deposits. Blood flows in one direction because the heart has valves that prevent backflow
- The tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its internal conditions, usually by a system of feedback controls, so as to stabilize health and functioning, regardless of the outside changing conditions.
- (2) The ability of the body or a cell to seek and maintain a condition of equilibrium or stability within its internal environment when dealing with external changes.
what 3 different sagittal cuts
plato mid and para sagittal
oblique cuts are usually done when examinin?
- – to understand where one body structure is in relation to another body structure Direction is always based on standard anatomical position
- Right and left refer to the body being viewed, not right and left of observer
Regional Terms –
- to designate specific areas within body division. Two major divisions:
- Axial Part Head, neck, and trunk
- Appendicular Part Limbs or appendages
Three most common types of body plane:
. Sagittal plane Divides body vertically into right and left parts Produces a sagittal section Midsagittal (median) plane Lies on midline Parasagittal plane Not on midline . Frontal (coronal) plane Divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts Transverse (horizontal) plane Divides body horizontally into superior and inferior parts Produces a cross section Oblique section Result of cuts at angle other than 90° to vertical plane
what about the body cavities?
Body contains internal cavities that are closed to environment Cavities provide different degrees of protection to organs within them Two sets of cavities Dorsal body cavity Ventral body cavity
Dorsal Body Cavity
Protects nervous system organs Two subdivisions: Cranial cavity Encases brain Vertebral cavity Encases spinal cord
- Houses the internal organs
- (collectively called viscera)Protects the internal organs
- Two subdivisions:
- Thoracic cavity –the heart, lungs, and remaining thoracic organs (esophagus, trachea, etc.)
- Abdominopelvic cavity – the stomach, spleen, intestines, liver, etc.
- Pleural cavities: Surround lungs Pericardial cavity: surround heart Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity; surrounds the remaining thoracic organs, such as esophagus, trachea, etc. Abdominal cavity: stomach, intestines, spleen, liver Pelvic cavity: bladder, reproductive organs
Divisions used primarily by medical personnel to locate the abdominopelvic cavity organs
- 1.4 Quadrants:
- Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)
- Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)
- Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
- Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
- 2.9 Regions
- Epigastric region (epigastrium) Left hypochondrium (LHC)
- Right hypochondrium (RHC)
- Umbilical region
- Left lumbar region
- Right lumbar region
- Hypogastric region
- Right iliac fossa (RIF)
- Left iliac fossa (LIF)
what is serosa
Serosa (also called serous membrane)=Thin, double-layered membranes that cover surfaces in ventral body cavity
what are two ventral body cavity membranes
1.Parietal serosa lines internal body walls 2.Visceral serosa covers the internal organs Double layers are separated by slit-like cavity filled with serous secreted by both layers of membrane
Named for specific cavity and organs with which associated Each has parietal and visceral layers
- Pericardium Heart
- Pleurae Lungs
- Peritoneum Abdominopelvic cavity
- Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity; surrounds the remaining thoracic organs, such as esophagus, trachea,
Which of the following lists best illustrates the idea of increasing levels of complexity?
Organelles, cells, tissues, organs, systems
How is oxygen used by living organisms?
It is used to release energy that is stored in food
The membrane on the surface of a lung is called the
A mechanism functioning to maintain a stable internal environment is most likely to involve
A parietal membrane __________, where as a visceral membrane ______________.
Lines cavities; covers organs
A decomposition reaction can be symbolized by
Electrolytes are substances that
Ionize when dissolved in water
The pH scale measures the
Concentration of hydrogen ions in solution
Synthesis reactions are particularly important in the body for
Growth of body parts