Physiology Midterm 2 Part 2

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  1. During isovolumetric relaxation, ________.
    • no change in volume
    • ventricles are filling
    • (80% of ventricular filling occurs before atria contracts)
    • atrial pressure low and rising
    • ventricular pressure high and decreasing
    • artery pressure high
    • Semilunar valves are closed
    • AV valves are closed
  2. What is occurring during ventricular ejection?
    • Blood in the ventricle is under increasingly high pressure
    • Semilunar valves are open
    • Contraction of the ventricle occurs
    • Blood is ejected into the systemic circuit
  3. Which of the following is true of the ventricular filling phase of the cardiac cycle?
    • Occurs during diastole
    • 80% is filled prior to atrial contraction
    • pressure is rising in ventricle & decreasing in atria
    • AV valves open
  4. The purpose of having valves in the cardiovascular system is to __
    prevent backflow and keep blood going in one direction
  5. he flattening of the action potentials of myocardial contractile cells, called the plateau phase, is due to a combination of ________ K+ permeability and ________ Ca2+ permeability.
    decreasing; increasing
  6. The end of the plateau phase is due to the ________ of Ca2+ channels and ________ of K+ channels.
    closing; opening
  7. The importance of the plateau phase of the action potential of myocardial cells is in ____
    preventing another action potential during contraction because of a long refractory period; tetanus
  8. The depolarization of the pacemaker action potential spreads to adjacent cells through __
    gap junctions
  9. In which situation would the stroke volume be the greatest?
    • stronger contractility
    • high EDV (end diastolic volume)
    • high preload
    • shorter filling time
    • faster venous return with with elevated HR
    • positive inotropic effect from cardiac muscle with epinephrine
  10. Manganese ions block the calcium channels in the cardiac muscle membrane. How would the presence of manganese in the extracellular fluid affect the contraction of the heart muscle?
    The heart will beat less forcefully.
  11. Drugs known as calcium channel blockers can be used to __
    • decrease the force of cardiac contraction
    • slow heart rate and cause vasodilation
    • decreases oxygen demand on the heart
  12. The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are __
    alveoli
  13. The lungs are enclosed in ________ membranes
    visceral & parietal pleural (double membrane)
  14. Type II alveolar cells
    • produce surfactant
    • (which reduce the surface tension of water,  making it easier for the lungs to re-inflate)
  15. Air moves into the lungs because
    • atmospheric pressure is high and pressure in lungs is low
    • diaphragm contracts and increases lung volume
  16. Air moves out of the lungs because
    • atmospheric pressure is low and lung pressure is high
    • diaphragm relaxes and decreases lung volume
  17. Boyle's law states that gas volume is __
    inversely proportional to pressure
  18. The P-R interval represents __
    the length of time for depolarization of the atria through the AV node
  19. The P-R segment represents __
    • slow conduction through the AV node and the bundle of His and finally the bundle branches
    • appears isoelectric because the structures that conduct the current are too small to generate detectable voltages
  20. The S-T segment represents __
    • the electrical activity during the plateau phase of myocardial repolarization
    • early phase of repolarization of the ventricles
    • (any abnormalities are caused by ischemia)
  21. Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is __
    in hemoglobin in RBCs
  22. Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as __
    bicarbonate ions
  23. The most important chemical regulator of ventilation is __
    CO2
  24. An increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the blood will __
    lower pH and begin negative feedback loop to breathe more
  25. Hyperventilation would lead to a(n) ________ within the systemic arteries.
    increase in pO2 and decrease in pCO2
  26. What is a deficiency of oxygen in the tissues called?
    hypoxia

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Author:
Anonymous
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322663
Filename:
Physiology Midterm 2 Part 2
Updated:
2016-08-25 21:05:29
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