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What is chemistry?
The study of the composition, structure and propeties of matter and the changes that it undergoes.
Pure/Basic Research vs. Applied Research
- Pure- development of knowledge (discovery of new elements)
- Applied- technology directly used for specific goals. (teflon: nonstick layer on pans)
What is mass?
The amount of matter that an object contains. (unaffected by gravity)
What is weight?
- The mass of substance times the fore of gravity whereas mass is unaffected by gravity.
- -mass x gravity (gravity on earth=9.8 m/s2)
What is matter?
Anything that has mass and takes up space. (volume)
What are atoms?
The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element.
What is an element?
- A pure substance mad of only one kind of atom.
- -Examples: Na, C, Br, Cl, Mg
What is a compound?
- A substance that is made from the atoms of 2 or more elements that are chmically bonded together.
- -substances that can be seperated into simpler substances by chemical reactions.
- -Eamples: NaCl, MgO, H2O
Both elements and compounds are considered what?
What are Extensive Properties?
- Deends on the size of the sample of substance.
- Examples: mass, volume, weight, heat absorbed
What are Intensive Properties?
- Does not depend on the size of the sample of substance and is true for any sample of that substance.
- Examples: density, color, boiling point, freezing point, etc.
What are Physical Properties?
- Property that does not change the compostion of a substance.
- Examples: dissolving, condensing, grinding.
What is a physical change?
- A change that does not involve a change in the identity of a substance.
- Examples: melting ice, painting wood, breaking glass, dissolving salt in water, etc.
What are the 3 common states of matter?
Solid, liquid and gas.
Describe a solid.
Matter with definite shape and matter. Molecules are tight and cannot move much so they vibrate.
Describe a Liquid.
Matter that flows, has a fixed volume and takes the shape of its container. More room to move around than a solid. Molecules do not move in straight line.
Describe a Gas.
Matter that takes both shape and volume of its container. Molecules move very fast and in straight lines; they have much more room to move that solids or liquids.
Solid to Liquid-
Solid to Gas-
Liquid to Gas-
Liquid to Solid-
Gas to Solid-
Gas to Liquid-
What are chemical properties?
- A property that changes chemical composition of the substance resulting in a new one.
- Examples: rusting, corroding, digesting, etc.
What is a Chemical Change?
A change in which one or more of the substances are converted into different substances.