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Function: Larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones for energy production ( hint: cat)
Small molecules are combined into larger ones, using energy in the process
Catabolism + Anabolism =
Metabolism : Biochemical reaction in the body
- Realease of energy / energy loss
- ex: burning alcohol
- On a graphy if the reactant is higher than the product
What is Endergonic?
- Energy gain / energy input is required
- ex: photosynthesis
- On a graph the product is higher than the reactant
What is activation energy?
Minimal energy required for a reaction to occur
Function: Proteins that catalyze the reaction of the body. They can speed up the reaction by lowering the activation energy
What are 2 models explaining enzyme specificity?
Lock and key model: substrate fits perfectly with the active site of the enzyme (old model)
Induced fit model: Substrate binding may induce a change in in the substrate or/and the enzyme.
What are 6 factors affecting the reaction rate?
- Substrate concentration
- Enzyme concentration
- Ennzyme inhibitors
Definition: Inhibitor binds to the enzyme permanently
Definition: Inhibitor binds to enzyme temporarily
Two types of enzyme inhibitors
2 types of reversible inhibitors
Competitive: bind directly to active site
Noncompetitive: Does not bind to active site
What is the allosteric site?
A site other than the active site to modulate the enzyme activity
What are the steps for carbohydrate metabolism?
- Pyruvate processing
- Citric acid cycle (krebs cycle)
- Electron transport chain
What is used to generate ATP?
Glycolysis (glucose splitting)
glucose(6 carbons)->2ADP+Pi+2NAD->2 pyruvates(3 carbons)+2ATP+2NADH
Pyruvate Processing (with O2)
Pyruvate (3 carbons)->acetyl CoA (2 carbons) + CO2 (1 carbon) + NADH
Citric Acid Cycle
Acetyl CoA (2 carbons)-> CO2 (1 carbon) + 1ATP + 3NADH + FADH2
Triglycerides are brokendown into Glycerol and fatty acids by...
Fatty Acids are broken down into 2 carbons or less fatty acids or acetyl CoA by..
Acetyl CoA with enough glucose can become...
Acetyl CoA with not enough glucose becomes...
Too much ketone bodies can lead to...
brain damage, then death
Steps for protein to energy
- Protein -> Amino acids = 1. keto acid 2. ammonia
- Ammonia turns into urea for excretion (waste)
- Keto acid ->pyruvate/acetyl CoA ->krebs cycle for ATP
Can fatty acids be used to synthesize glucose?
What molecules can be used to synthesize glucose?
- most amino acids
When blood glucose is low, can the body synthesize glucose to maintain the blood glucose level?
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