physio chptr3

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  1. Function: Larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones for energy production ( hint: cat)
  2. Small molecules are combined into larger ones, using energy in the process
  3. Catabolism + Anabolism =
    Metabolism : Biochemical reaction in the body
  4. Exergonic means
    • Realease of energy / energy loss
    • ex: burning alcohol 
    • On a graphy if the reactant is higher than the product
  5. What is Endergonic?
    • Energy gain / energy input is required 
    • ex: photosynthesis 
    • On a graph the product is higher than the reactant
  6. What is activation energy?
    Minimal energy required for a reaction to occur
  7. Function: Proteins that catalyze the reaction of the body. They can speed up the reaction by lowering the activation energy
  8. What are 2 models explaining enzyme specificity?
    Lock and key model: substrate fits perfectly with the active site of the enzyme (old model)

    Induced fit model: Substrate binding may induce a change in in the substrate or/and the enzyme.
  9. What are 6 factors affecting the reaction rate?
    • Substrate concentration 
    • Enzyme concentration 
    • Affinity 
    • temperature 
    • ph
    • Ennzyme inhibitors
  10. Definition: Inhibitor binds to the enzyme permanently
    Irreversible inhibitor
  11. Definition: Inhibitor binds to enzyme temporarily
    Rversible inhibitor
  12. Two types of enzyme inhibitors
    • Irreversible 
    • Reversible
  13. 2 types of reversible inhibitors
    Competitive: bind directly to active site 

    Noncompetitive: Does not bind to active site
  14. What is the allosteric site?
    A site other than the active site to modulate the enzyme activity
  15. What are the steps for carbohydrate metabolism?
    • glycolysis 
    • Pyruvate processing 
    • Citric acid cycle (krebs cycle) 
    • Electron transport chain
  16. What is used to generate ATP?
    • NADH
    • FADH2
    • NADPH
  17. Glycolysis (glucose splitting)
    glucose(6 carbons)->2ADP+Pi+2NAD->2 pyruvates(3 carbons)+2ATP+2NADH
  18. Pyruvate Processing (with O2)
    Pyruvate (3 carbons)->acetyl CoA (2 carbons) + CO2 (1 carbon) + NADH
  19. Citric Acid Cycle
    Acetyl CoA (2 carbons)-> CO2 (1 carbon) + 1ATP + 3NADH + FADH2
  20. Triglycerides are brokendown into Glycerol and fatty acids by...
  21. Fatty Acids are broken down into 2 carbons or less fatty acids or acetyl CoA by..
    Beta Oxidation
  22. Acetyl CoA with enough glucose can become...
  23. Acetyl CoA with not enough glucose becomes...
    Ketone bodies
  24. Too much ketone bodies can lead to...
    brain damage, then death
  25. Steps for protein to energy
    • Protein -> Amino acids = 1. keto acid 2. ammonia 
    • Ammonia turns into urea for excretion (waste) 
    • Keto acid ->pyruvate/acetyl CoA ->krebs cycle for ATP
  26. Can fatty acids be used to synthesize glucose?
  27. What molecules can be used to synthesize glucose?
    • pyrucate
    • lactate
    • most amino acids
  28. When blood glucose is low, can the body synthesize glucose to maintain the blood glucose level?

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physio chptr3
2016-09-02 04:30:28

Cell Metabolism
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