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Four standard vital signs are a person’s:
- Body temperature
- Respiratory rate
- Blood pressure
- Measurement of the heart rate in beats per minute
- The pulse is a throbbing sensation caused by the contraction and expansion of an artery as blood passes through it
An unusually fast heartbeat (over 100 bpm in an adult).
An unusually slow heartbeat (below 50)
What is the normal pulse rate for an adult
Normal pulse rate for an adult is between 60 and 100 beats per minute
Normal pulse rate for a child
- 2-6 years 75-120 Appr. 100
- 6-12 years 75-110 Appr. 95
- Adolesnce to adult 60-100 Appr. 80
- The breathing rate in beats per minute
- Measured by watching the rise and fall of the chest wall
Normal respiratory rate for an adult/child
- Adult – 14 to 20 breaths per minute
- Child – 18 to 30 breaths per minute
The force exerted against the walls of the blood vessels as the blood flows through them
Prehypertensive blood pressure readings are considered:
- 120 to 139 (systolic)
- 80 to 89 (diastolic)
Stage 1 hypertension
- 140 to 159 (systolic)
- 90 to 99 (diastolic)
Stage 2 hypertension
- 160 or higher (systolic)
- 100 or higher(diastolic)
Purpose of a medical history
- Reveals conditions that may require adaptations or modifications to treatment; also indicates possible precautions
- Systemic disease may have oral implications.
- Medications produce changes in oral health.
- Systemic conditions may require certain precautions prior to dental treatment.
- Oral manifestations may need to be checked by the primary care physician.
- The ASA status of the patient is used to determine the patient’s level of medical risk during dental treatment.
- ASA I-VI
The American Society of Anesthesiologists
Mild to moderate disease, anxious
Severe systemic disease that limits activity but is not incapacitated
Severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life
A moribund patient not expected to survive 24 hours with or without care.
Clinically dead patients being maintained for harvesting of organs
- Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.
- Protects all individually identifiable personal health information, or health-related information that can be reasonably linked to a patient using
Patients that need Prophylactic Premedication
- infective endocarditis
- Artificial heart valves
- A cardiac transplant which develops a problem in a heart valve.
- HHT diagnosis
Timing of ingestion of oral antibiotics
- (1 hour prior to patient care) ensures adequate concentrations in the blood during, and immediately following, the actual instrumentation.
- The premedication can be taken up to 2 hours after the start of treatment.
Patient health records assists in
- Coordination of planning
- Continuity of care
- Evaluation of quality of care
- Research & education
What are the Florida state statues for a patient’s written request for copies of records
A dentist shall comply in a timely manner less than 30 days
What are the Florida State Statues for record copying fees
- A dentist may charge a fee for copying reports or records not to exceed the cost per page charged by the Clerk of the County Court where the dentist practices.
- The fee for copies of x-rays shall not exceed actual cost of duplication
50% of emergencies are
8% of medical emergencies are
- Mild allergic reaction
- Angina pectoris
- Orthostatic hypotension
For the Prevention of emergencies Dental Hygienists should take:
- A thorough health history
- Take and record vital signs
- Dental personnel must be prepared for a medical emergencies
Angina and its treatment
- Inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart
- Nitroglycerine used to treat medical condition
Asthma and its treatment
- It is an affliction of the respiratory tract
- Stop all dental treatment. Be sure to remove all materials and instruments from the patient’s mouth.
- Place patient in an upright position with arms to allow air to enter the lungs.
- I - Use a bronchodilator
What are the four stages of the General Tonic-Clonic Seizure – Grand Mal
- The patient may have a personality change or an “aura”. “Aura” can consist of a certain smell, a flash of light, or a certain noise.
- Usually occurs prior to the convulsive stage.
- Begin to time the seizure – 3 minutes is critical
the person will lose consciousness and may fall, if standing.
Muscle have sustained contractions- “epileptic cry”
- Patient motion has stopped and they are unconscious.
- Patient may be confused about what happened or where he/she is.
Absence-Seizure-Petit Mal Seizures
- They may have a blank stare, twitch or blink rapidly.
- Seizure may come and go without anyone realizing the patient is experiencing a seizure.
- Patient resumes normal functioning with no memory of the episode.
Treatment for seizures
- Place patient in a supine position.
- When the patient regains consciousness reassure them.
- This could take up to two hours.
- Do not give the patient anything to eat or drink until he is fully awake.
- Give the patient plenty of time to rest.
What are the two stages of syncope
- Cause is fear and anxiety
- First stage the patient is pale and covered in cold sweat.
- Second stage consists of the actual loss of consciousness.
Treatment of syncope
- Place the patient in a supine position (Trendelenburg) with the feet higher than the head while the patient is in the dental chair (not a pregnant patient).
- Place cold compress on forehead
- Monitor vitals
Hyperventilation syndrome is a condition in which the patient breathes faster and/or deeper than the metabolic needs of the body.
What is the treatment for Hyperventilation
- Place patient in an upright position & loosen any tight clothing.
- Attempt to keep the patient calm.
- Have patient control breathing.
What is MI/treatment
- Heart Attack where pain last more than 20 minutes
- Patients are given aspirin.
What is the treatment for Angina
- Place the patient in a Semisupine or upright position.
- Administer sublingual nitroglycerine –Use patient's own medication if current.
- Will feel tingling sensation on tongue if fresh.
- Administer one table every five minutes up to three doses – usually alleviates symptoms in two to four minutes.
Symptoms of stroke
- Difficulty with swallowing and speech.
- Once side of face may droop.