BIO141

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  1. What is matter?
    • Anything that has mass and occupies space
    • States of matter:
    • 1.Solid—definite shape and volume
    • 2.Liquid—definite volume, changeable shape
    • 3.Gas—changeable shape and volume
  2. What is energy?
    • Capacity to do work or put matter into motion
    • Types of energy
    • :Kinetic—energy in action
    • Potential—stored (inactive) energy
  3. what are the types of energy?
    • Chemical energy—stored in bonds of chemical substances
    • Electrical energy—results from movement of charged particles
    • Mechanical energy—directly involved in moving matter
    • Radiant or electromagnetic energy—exhibits wavelike properties (i.e., visible light, ultraviolet light, and X-rays)
  4. what are the compositions of matter?
    • Elements
    • Cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means
    • Each has unique properties:
    • Physical properties
    • Are detectable with our senses, or are measurable
    • Chemical properties
    • How atoms interact (bond) with one another
    • Atoms
    • Unique building blocks for each element
    • Atomic symbol: one- or two-letter chemical shorthand for each element (C for carbon, H for hydrogen, Na for sodium, Cl for chloride)
  5. what are the Major Elements of the Human Body
    • Oxygen (O) Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) 96% of body mass
    • Nitrogen (N)
  6. Which of the following lists best illustrates the idea of increasing levels of complexity?
    Organelles, cells, tissues, organs, systems
  7. How is oxygen used by living organisms?
    It is used to release energy that is stored in food
  8. The membrane on the surface of a lung is called the
    Visceral pleura
  9. A mechanism functioning to maintain a stable internal environment is most likely to involve
    Negative feedback
  10. Two molecules that are isomers:
    (A) must contain the same functional groups (B) often differ in the number of unsaturated bonds they possess
    (C) have the same molecular formulas
    (D) often have different masses
    (C) have the same molecular formulas
  11. In which of the following kinds of organic compounds does a carbon atom bond ONLY to hydrogen and other carbon atoms?
    (A) carbohydrates 
    (D) nucleic acids
    (B)fatty acids
    (E) hydrocarbons
    (C)lipids
    (E) hydrocarbons
  12. An element is a substance that is composed of
    only one type of atom
  13. Why cant Heg be a chemical symbol for an element
    “Heg” could NOT be a chemical symbol for an element. Chemical symbols consist of one or two letters. The first (or only) letter is capitalized. The second letter is lower case. With three letters, “Heg” is not a legitimate chemical symbol.
  14. Potassium has 19 protons, 19 neutrons, and 19 electrons. Following the Octet Rule for placing electrons in orbitals, what is the following arrangements
    In Potassium, with 19 electrons, the first two electrons go into the first orbital. The next 8 go into the second orbital. The next 8 go into the third orbital. That leaves one electron for the fourth orbital

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  15. How many individual atoms are found in a molecule of CH4O?
    carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O). The lack of a subscript next to the carbon and oxygen indicates one atom of each. The subscript “4” next to the hydrogen (H4) indicates that there are four hydrogen atoms. 4 + 1 + 1 = 6 total atoms.
  16. what are ions
    Ions are atoms that have lost electrons, and thereby gained an electrical charge
  17. what are compounds
    Compounds are combinations of chemically bonded atoms.
  18. The smallest part of a compound that still has the properties of that compound would be a
    The smallest unit of a compound to still have that compound’s chemical properties would be a molecule.
  19. what is a hydrogen bond
    a bond between molecules
  20. The type of chemical bond that would result from the electron swapping shown below is a

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    The kind of electron trading shown above is an ionic bond. ionic bonds results in charged ions, which bond with one another because of their opposite electrical charges
  21. how and what is the charge on the ion
    The charge on the ion is the number of protons, minus the number of electrons.
  22. The bonds holding methane together are ___________  bonds.

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    If you look at the diagram above, you can see that the carbon and hydrogen are sharing electrons. The bond that involves sharing electrons is a covalent bond.
  23. The bond between the two carbon atoms in the diagram with a double covalent bond
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  24. give an example a molecular or chemical formula.
    CH4
  25. A structural formula shows......give an example
    • A structural formula shows the chemical symbols for the atoms in a molecule, and uses dashes to represent the shared pairs of electrons that connect these atoms.
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  26. The building block of matter is the
    atoms
  27. explain how to figure out the number of individual atoms are found in a molecule of CH4O?
    There are three elements in this molecule: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O). The lack of a subscript next to the carbon and oxygen indicates one atom of each. The subscript “4” next to the hydrogen (H4) indicates that there are four hydrogen atoms. 4 + 1 + 1 = 6 total atoms.
  28. The smallest part of a compound that still has the properties of that compound would be a(n)
    The smallest unit of a compound to still have that compound’s chemical properties would be a molecule.
  29. what are compounds
    compounds (combinations of chemically bonded atoms) that have properties that are very different from the atoms that make them up.

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Author:
Emilyliz88
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322936
Filename:
BIO141
Updated:
2016-09-12 05:02:51
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chem/biochem/ Chapter 2
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