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  1. Active exercise
    Independently moves joints through their full range of motion
  2. Ankylosis
    fixation or immobilization of a joint
  3. Atrophy
    decrease in the size of a body structure
  4. Cartilage
    Is hard nonvascular connective tissue found in joints as well as in nose, ear, thorax, trachea, and larynx
  5. Contractures
    permanent contraction of a muscle
  6. Dangling
    position in which the person sits on the edge of the bed with legs and feet dangling over the side of the bed
  7. Exercise
    active exertion of muscles involving the contraction and relaxation of muscle groups
  8. Flaccidity
    decreased muscle tone; synonym for hypotonicity
  9. Footdrop
    complication resulting from extended plantar flexion
  10. Isokinetic exercise
    Involves muscle contractions with resistance
  11. Isometric exercise
    exercise in which muscle tension occurs without a significant change in muscle length
  12. Isotonic exercise
    • Involves muscle shortening and active movement
    • (2) exercise in which muscles shorten (contract) and move
  13. Ligaments
    tough fibrous bands that bind joints together and connect bones and cartilage
  14. Negative nitrogen balance
    condition resulting in muscle wasting and decreased physical energy for movement and work (eg, anorexia nervosa and certain cancers)
  15. Neurons
    Conduct impulses from one part of the body to another
  16. Orthopedics
    the correction or prevention of disorders of body structures used in locomotion
  17. Osteoporosis
    condition characterized by loss of calcium from bone tissue
  18. Paralysis
    The absence of strength secondary to nervous impairment
  19. Paresis
    impaired muscle strength or weakness
  20. Passive exercise
    manual or mechanical means of moving the joints, when the patient is uable to move independently and the nurse moves each joint through its range of motion
  21. Range of motion
    complete extent of movement of which a joint is normally capable
  22. Spasticity
    increased muscle tone that interferes with movement, is also caused by neurologic impairments
  23. Tendons
    strong, flexible, inelastic fibrous bands that attach muscle to bone
  24. Tonus
    The term used to describe the state of slight contraction-the usual state of skeletal muscles
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