Chapter 3

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  1. Embryology
    The study of prenatal development
  2. Prenatal development consists of what three distinct periods
    • the preimplantation period
    • the embryonic period
    • the fetal period
  3. What prenatal periods make up the first trimester of the pregnancy
    The preimplantation period and the embryonic period
  4. The first trimester last for how long
    8 weeks
  5. Most of the development of the embryo develops
    In the first 9 weeks
  6. The union of the woman's egg (ovum) and the man's sperm form a
    zygote
  7. When the zygote is formed it contains how many chromosomes
    46 23 from mom 23 from dad
  8. Morula
    a ball of cells
  9. The morula then transforms into a what
    Blastocyst or blastula: a hollow ball
  10. By the end of the first week, the blastocyst stops traveling and
    undergoes implantation in the endometrium of the uterus.
  11. Trophoblast layer
    A layer of peripheral cells in the blastula
  12. Embryoblast
    a small inner mass of embryonic cells in the blastocyst
  13. What group of cells become the future embryo
    The embryoblast group of cells will migrate and cluster together
  14. How long does the pre implantation period last
    1 week
  15. The Embryonic period last from
    2nd week to the 8th week
  16. PROLIFERATION
    growth which occurs by the controlled addition of more cells
  17. interstitial growth
    growth which occurs within a tissue
  18. appositional growth
    growth which occurs by addition of layers on the outside of a tissue
  19. INDUCTION
    • the interaction between embryologic cells
    • The cells communicate to become different
  20. DIFFERENTIATION
    the change in embryonic cells, which are identical genetically, but become distinct structurally and functionally (transformation of a less specialized cell into a more specialized cell)
  21. CYTODIFFERENTIATION
    –the development of different cell types
  22. HISTODIFFERENTIATION
    –the development of different tissues
  23. MORPHODIFFERENTIATION
    • –the development of differing form or structure
    • a change in shape
  24. MORPHOGENESIS
    is the process of development of specific tissue structure which occurs due to migration of embryonic cells and induction of these cells
  25. MATURATION
    is the final process which begins during the embryonic period and continues during the fetal period where the tissue attains adult function and size due to proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis
  26. bilaminar embryonic disc
    a two-layered, flattened plate of cells
  27. The top layer of cells in the bilaminar embryonic disc is the
    epiblast and is composed of high columnar cells
  28. The lower layer of the bilaminar embryonic disc is the
    hypoblast and is composed of small cuboidal cells.
  29. The epiblast layer will become the
    ectoderm
  30. The hypoblast layer will become the
    endoderm
  31. When the bilaminar disc becomes suspended in the endometrium the ______ faces the ectoderm and the _____ faces the endoderm layer
    • amniotic cavity
    • yolk sack
  32. Yolk sac
    serves as the initial nutrient for the embryonic disc
  33. During the third week of prenatal development what forms within the epiblast layer
    primitive streak
  34. During the third week of prenatal development where do some cells migrate to form the mesoderm
    epiblast
  35. Mesenchyme cells
    have the ability to differentiate into the different connective tissue cells, such as fibroblasts, chondroblasts and osteoblasts
  36. What kinds of tissue originate from the ectoderm layer
    skin, nerve tissue, lining of mouth
  37. What kind of tissue originate from the endoderm layer
    lining of the digestive tract
  38. What kind of tissue originate from the mesoderm layer
    Bone, cartilage, blood, collagen, muscle, kidney, heart
  39. When does the central nervous system begins to develop in the embryo
    During the last part of the third week
  40. During the development of the central nervous system cells differentiate from the ectoderm called
    • neuroectoderm
    • They are localized to the neural plate of the embryo
  41. The neural plate
    a band of cells that runs the length of the embryo on the dorsal surface
  42. The neural plate undergoes deepening and invaginate centrally to form the
    the neural groove
  43. The neural groove becomes surrounded by
    neural folds
  44. By the beginning of the 4th week, the neural groove deepens to form
    a neural tube
  45. The neural tube fuses and becomes the
    future spinal cord
  46. Specialized group of cells that develop from neuroectoderm
    neural crest cells
  47. somites
    38 paired cuboidal aggregates of cells that differentiates from the mesoderm
  48. Where are the somites located
    on each side of the developing midline portion of the central nervous system
  49. The somites give rise to
    most of the skeletal structures of the head, neck and trunk, as well as the associated muscle and dermis of the skin
  50. During that week does the disc undergoes embryonic folding, into an embryo
    During the fourth week of prenatal development
  51. After the embryonic folding where do the germ layer lie
    the endoderm lies inside the ectoderm with mesoderm filling in the the areas between the 2 layers
  52. The oropharyngeal membrane consists of
    ectoderm externally and endoderm internally.
  53. The oropharyngeal membrane is the location of the
    location of the future primitive mouth (stomodeum) and the beginning of the digestive tract
  54. pharyngeal arches or branchial arches
    four pairs of arches that form on the lateral walls lining the pharynx during the development of the digestive tract
  55. During what week does the face and neck begin to develop with the primitive eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity and jaw areas
    4th week
  56. teratogens
    • substances that may cause major congenital malformations of the embryo 
    • consist of environmental factors such as infections, drugs/alcohol and radiation
  57. Also known as German measles
    • rubella virus
    • This infection in the embryo can result in cataracts, cardiac defects and deafness
  58. Syphilis infection can result in
    defects in the incisors and molars

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Author:
haitianwifey
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322983
Filename:
Chapter 3
Updated:
2016-09-12 23:35:55
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Chapter 3
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