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Atherosclerosis is an __ disease caused by __
inflammatory; accumulation of lipids
Atherosclerosis occurs in __
arteries (higher occurrence) and veins
risk factors of atherosclerosis
genes, sedentary lifestyle, smoking
The chloride shift occurs when __
- Bicarb is dumped into blood stream in exchange for Cl- which combines with H+ to form HCl
- Purpose is to keep red blood cell at the same charge of -70mV. It swaps charges so as to maintain its membrane potential.
Emulsification aids in the digestion of fats by ________.
- Increasing the surface area of the fat globule exposed to enzymes
- (The liver produces bile which is an emulsifier. It helps fat mix with water by emulsifying the fat. Breaks large fat globules into small fat globules)
Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidneys?
Producing the hormones melatonin and oxytocin
Functions of the kidneys
- filtration, reabsorption, secretion
- regulation of pH & blood pressure
- Production of urine
- indirect regulation of interstitial fluid endocrine function (hormone production)
- activation of vitamin D
G cells of the stomach secrete __
Progressive hemorrhagic shock
Without medical assistance, shock becomes worse leading to death
- Cardiac depression
- Vasomotor failure
- Blockage of very small vessels
- Increased capillary permeability
- Generalized cellular deterioration
- Tissue necrosis in severe shock
- Acidosis in shock
The primary role of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system is __
- to stabilize blood pH (takes up protons or releases them as conditions of the blood change )
- to limit pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids
All of the following will normally be found in the filtrate EXCEPT
The ________ is a significant site of absorption of water and electrolytes, but NOT of nutrients.
Decreased cardiac output with simultaneous drop in blood pressure
During what renal process are molecules selectively removed from the tubule lumen, moved into the interstitial space, and removed from the kidneys by the peritubular capillaries and the vasa recta?
What cells function to secrete hydrogen ions into the lumen of the stomach?
The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
The force for glomerular filtration is the
Blood pressure (hydrostatic pressure) in the glomerular capillaries
The loss of reproductive capacity that occurs as females age is caused by ________.
Changes in hormone secretory patterns (Less estrogen and progesterone)
Chief cells secrete
How does severe diarrhea cause a metabolic acidosis?
Bicarb unable to be absorbed from large intestine; lower GI has a lot bicarb
The hormonal trigger for menstruation involves a ________.
Loss of progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum
Areas where laminar flow is disrupted
- Branching points of arteries (i.e. brain, coronary, carotid)
- High risk areas for blood clots to form
- Cardiac abnormalities that decrease the heart’s ability to pump blood
- (heart attack, arrhythmia, or dysfunctional valve)
- 70% of people do not survive
Nutrient absorption occurs primarily in the
Secretin release is stimulated by ___ and released by __ cells.
- acid and fat;
- S (in small intestine)
Secretin secretes __ and releases __. It inhibits __
- pancreatic bicarb;
- gastric acid secretion
What does luteinizing hormone (LH) cause in males?
stimulates release of testosterone
During myogenic regulation of glomerular filtration rate, an increase in mean arterial pressure will ________.
Cause the afferent arterioles to constrict and thereby maintain a relatively constant glomerular filtration pressure
Symptoms of low plasma pH may include
- CNS depression
- Generalized weakness
- Deranged CNS function
- Severe: disorientation, coma, death
Once the chyme begins to enter the duodenum, it must first be ________ before any of the enzymes in the pancreatic juices can be activated.
- Neutralized or deacidified
- (The pancreas secretes bicarbonate to neutralize the very acidic chyme.)