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  1. Immunity: First Line Defense
    • *Innate (natural) immunity
    • -physical, chemical, and mechanical barriers
  2. Immunity: Second Line Defense
    Inflammation
  3. Immunity: Third Line Defense
    Adaptive (acquired) specific immunity
  4. First Line Defense
    • *Skin is the greatest barrier
    • *Linings of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tracts
    • -sloughing off of cells
    • -coughing and sneezing
    • -urine
    • -vomiting
    • -mucus and cilia
  5. Second line defense
    • Inflammatory response (first immune response to injury)
    • *non specific (isn't specifically attacking a virus)
    • *caused by a variety of materials
    • -infection, tissue necrosis, trauma, physical or chemical injury, foreign bodies, immune reaction, ischemia
    • *local manifestations- redness, heat, swelling,pain, loss of function
  6. Second line defense (vascular responses)
    • *blood vessel dilation- so that more things can get to the affected area
    • *increased vascular permeability and leakage
    • *White blood vessel cell adherence to the inner walls of the vessels and migration through the vessels.
  7. Inflammation Goals
    • *Limit and Control inflammatory process
    • *Prevent and limit infection and further damage
    • *initiate adaptive immune response
    • *initiate healing
  8. Plasma protein systems
    • *complement system
    • *clotting system
    • *kinin system
  9. What do Plasma Protein System contain?
    • *they are inactive enzymes (proenzymes)
    • *Proenzymes will get activated and will have a space for substrate
    • *substrate will only fit in its specific enzyme
  10. Plasma Protein System: Complement System
    • *produces biologically active fragments that recruit phagocytes, active mast cells and destroy pathogens
    • *Activation of C3 and C5
  11. Plasma Protein System: Complement System Pathways
    • Classical: activated by antibodies
    • Lectin: activated by plasma proteins
    • alternative: activated by substance on bacteria
  12. Plasma Protein System: Coagulation (clotting)
    • *forms a fibrous meshwork an injures or affected site
    • -prevents infection from spreading
    • -localizes microorganisms and foreign bodies
    • -clots to prevent bleeding
    • -provides framework for repair and healing
    • *main substance is an insoluble protein called fibrin
  13. Plasma Protein System: Coagulation (clotting) pathwyas
    • Extrinsic:activated by tissue factor
    • intrinsic: activated when blood vessel cell wall is damaged
  14. Plasma Protein System: Kinin system
    • *functions to activate and assist inflammatory cells
    • * primary kinin is bradykinin
    • *causes dilation of BV, pain, smooth muscle contraction; increases vascular permeability
  15. Control and interaction of Plasma Protein System
    • *regulation is essential
    • *many mechanisms are available to activate or inactivate Plasma Protein Systems
    • -enzymes that destroy mediators of inflammation
    • -clot limiting factors
  16. cellular components of inflammation

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
323037
Filename:
Nusing328
Updated:
2016-09-09 02:56:40
Tags:
nursing
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Description:
Chapter 6
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