Organic Chem Test 1

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  1. Nonpolar Covalent Bond
    Bonded atoms share electrons evenly
  2. Polar Covalent Bond
    One of the atoms attracts electrons more
  3. Induction
    Shifting of electrons within their orbitals results in a dipole moment
  4. Sigma Bond
    single bond
  5. Pi bond
    double bond
  6. What kind of molecular forces are there?
    • dipole-dipole
    • hydrogen bonding
    • London-dispersion forces
  7. Dipole-dipole
    • Result when polar molecules line up their opposite charges
    • Acetone has permanent dipole-dipole interactions that result from difference in EN between carbon and oxygen
    • affects melting and boiling points
  8. Hydrogen Bonding
    • A very strong type of dipole-dipole
    • strong because partial charges are large
    • only when a hydrogen bonds with O, N, or F will it have a large positive charge
  9. London-Dispersion Forces
    Weakest force, effect of random electron charges passing by
  10. Reagent
    substance added to a system in order to bring about a chemical reaction
  11. Bronsted-Lowry definition of Acid/Base Reactions
    • Acids donate a proton
    • Bases accept a proton
    • Reversable
  12. The stronger the acid...
    The weaker its conjugate base and vice versa
  13. Acid-base equilibria always favor-
    The weakest acid and weakest base
  14. Acid/Base reactions occur in how many steps?
    one
  15. Quantitative Strength Analysis
    Using numerical data to compare how strong acids are
  16. What is chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=K_a&chs=48x34?
    The equilibrium constant for the reaction between acid and water
  17. What is the equation forĀ chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=K_a&chs=48x34?
    chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=K_a%3D%5Cfrac%7B(H_3O%5E%2B)(A%5E-)%7D%7BHA%7D&chs=256x80
  18. What is the equation forĀ chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=pK_a&chs=74x36?
    chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=pK_a%3D-logK_a&chs=240x36
  19. What is the pKa for Alkanes?
    ~50
  20. pKa for Alkene
    ~43
  21. pKa for Hydrogen
    42
  22. pKa for Amine
    ~35
  23. pKa for Sulfoxide
    31
  24. pKa for Alkyne
    25
  25. pKa for Ester
    25
  26. pKa for Nitrile
    25
  27. pKa for Ketone/aldehyde
    20-24
  28. pKa for Alcohol (CH3OH)
    17
  29. pKa for Water
    16
  30. pKa for Malonates
    13
  31. pKa for Thiols
    13
  32. pkA for Protonated amines
    9-11
  33. pKa for Carboxylic acids
    4
  34. pKa for Hydrofluoric acid
    3.2
  35. pKa for Sulfonic acids
    -1
  36. pKa for Hydronium ion (H3O+)
    -1.7
  37. pKa for Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
    -3
  38. pKa for Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
    -6
  39. pKa for Hydrobromic acid (HBr)
    -9
  40. pKa for Hydroiodic acid (HI)
    -10
  41. What is better at stabilizing negative charges?
    Atoms with higher electronegativity
  42. Resonance stabilizes formal negative charges by...
    spreading it out into partial charges in the pi bonds
  43. Induction stabilizes formal negative charges by...
    Spreading it out into partial charges in the sigma bonds
  44. Sp3 orbital
    Tetrahedral electron group, 109.5 angles
  45. Sp2 orbitals (hybridized and unhybridized)
    • hybridized: sigma bonds
    • unhybridized: pi ponds
  46. What creates more stable negative charges and stronger bonds?
    Shorter distance between atom's nuclei
  47. Solvation
    When a solvent makes an acid stronger by forming ion-dipole attractions to stabilize the formal negative charge. The more room for bonding, the more a solvent can stabilize.
  48. Hydrocarbons
    Compounds that are only composed of hydrogen and carbon
  49. Alkanes
    Saturated hydrocarbons that do not contain pi bonds
  50. Hydrocarbon Functional Groups
    • Alkane
    • Alkene
    • Alkyne
  51. Simple Oxygen Heteroatomic Functional Groups
    • Alcohol
    • Ether
    • Epoxide
  52. Halogen Heteroatomics Functional Groups
    Haloalkane
  53. Carbonyl Compounds Functional Groups
    • Aldehyde
    • Ketone
    • Carboxylic Acid
    • Acid Anhydride
    • Ester
    • Amide
    • Acyl Halide
  54. Nitrogen Based Functional Groups
    • Amine
    • Nitrile
    • Imine
    • Isocyanate
    • Azo Compound
  55. Sulfur based functional groups
    Thiol
  56. Aromatic functional groups
    Arene
  57. Parent chain
    Longest consecutive chain of carbons
  58. 1 Carbon Parent chain
    Methane
  59. 2 carbon parent chain
    ethane
  60. 3 carbon parent chain
    propane
  61. 4 carbon parent chain
    butane
  62. 5 carbon parent chain
    pentane
  63. 6 carbon parent chain
    hexane
  64. 7 carbon parent chain
    heptane
  65. 8 carbon parent chain
    octane
  66. 9 carbon parent chain
    nonane
  67. 10 carbon parent chain
    decane
  68. If there is more than one possible parent chain...
    Choose the one with the most substituents attached
  69. If the parent chain is cyclic (ring)...
    Add the prefix "cyclo" to the beginning of the name
  70. How to Identify Substituents
    Count the number of carbons in each side group and use the same prefix terms as parent chain but end with -yl instead of -ane
  71. How to name complex substituents
    • Number the longest chain within the substituent, start with carbon directly attached to main chain
    • Name the substituent
    • Name and number the substituent's side group
  72. Common names for 3 atom substituents
    • Propyl
    • Isopropyl (1-methyethyl)
  73. Common names for 4 atom substituents
    • Butyl
    • sec-butyl (1-methylpropyl)
    • Isobutyl (2-methylpropyl)
    • tert-butyl (1,1-dimethylethyl)
  74. How to name from structure
    • Identify longest chain
    • Identify substituents and positions
    • Methyl
    • Ethyl
    • Isopropyl
    • Determine priorities
    • Alphabetize to finish naming
  75. Constitutional Isomer
    Same formula, different connectivity
  76. Stereoisomer
    Same formula, same connectivity
  77. Conformational Isomer
    same formula, same connectivity, compounds can be interconverted by rotation about single bonds
  78. Configurational Isomer
    same formula, same connectivity, compounds cannot be interconverted by rotation about single bonds
  79. Geometric Isomer
    same formula, same connectivity, compounds cannot be interconverted by rotation about single bonds, isomerism is at a double bond
  80. Optical Isomer
    same formula, same connectivity, compounds cannot be interconverted by rotation about single bonds, isomerism is not at a double bond
  81. Disasteromers
    same formula, same connectivity, compounds cannot be interconverted by rotation about single bonds, isomerism is not a double bond, compounds are superimposable mirror images
  82. Enantiomers
    same formula, same connectivity, compounds cannot be interconverted by rotation about single bonds, isomerism is not double bond, compounds are not superimposable mirror images
  83. Cis-Trans Isomers
    • Double bonds cannot rotate
    • Cis: on this side
    • Trans: on the other side/across

Card Set Information

Author:
smittykitty
ID:
323255
Filename:
Organic Chem Test 1
Updated:
2016-09-16 05:34:47
Tags:
organic chemistry
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Description:
Test 1
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