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Principal reasons that Wundt is given credit for founding the science of psychology:
- Created first psychology lab
- Wrote most important psychology textbook
- Created instruments to implement scientific experiments
Describe the use of Wissenschaft at the University of Berlin.
- Extended curriculum
- Established labs
- Encouraged students to do research
- Gave teachers freedom to teach whatever they want
Why is 1879 generally noted as the birth year of scientific psychology?
First psychology lab was created.
In Wundt's view, what was the goal of psychology?
To discover the facts of consciousness its combinations and relations, so that it may ultimately discover the laws which govern these relations and combinations.
Two factors that make up conscious experience, in Wundt’s view:
- Content of experience
- What the observer makes of the content
Why did Wundt refer to his first psychology as "voluntarism?"
To indicate the voluntary, active, and wilful nature of the mind.
How was apperception important in Wundt's psychology?
- To provide maximal clarity for the conscious experience
- It was the principal process by which psychical elements and compounds were synthesized into new conscious experiences
Describe Wundt's method of experimental self-observation.
- The observer was presented with a stimulus condition
- The observer was instructed to be in a state or readiness and was told when the stimulus would be presented.
- Right after, the observer would give an account of what (s)he experienced.
Benjamin describes how the reaction time method could be used to measure the amount of time it took to decide whether a light was red or green. Describe the two reaction times that were measured and how the time of the mental task was calculated.
- Two reaction times: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent)
- The task was calculated by measuring the speed of certain mental problems by measuring reaction time and subtracting the time required for sensory and motor components.
Type of research methods Wundt thought should be used to study cultural psychology topics such as religion, art, and language:
Non-experimental methods: cultural anthropology, sociology, social psychology.
Where Ebbinghaus got the idea for his memory studies:
Fechner's book, Elements of Psychophysics
How did Ebbinghaus solve the problem that words carried meaning and had pre-existing meanings?
He used nonsense syllables that possessed no meaning
Describe Brentano’s act psychology
Studying the actions of consciousness
What did Stumpf and Pfungst discover about Clever Hans?
- The horse's owner was giving subtle cues to the horse indicating when he should tap his foot;
- apparently he could "count"
How did Müller extend the work of Ebbinghaus?
He replicated many of Ebbinghaus's experiments, but also asked subjects what they were thinking (the process used to memorize words)
Describe how Külpe observed the phenomenon of mental set.
- When subjects were asked to pair numbers, their introspective accounts of the addition indicated that the numbers were incorporated before the task such that they did not play a role in the task itself;
- they added the numbers automatically without thinking that they must add them.
What did Külpe mean by "imageless thought?"
When observers produced thoughts that had no sensations or images attached to them.