SBMI Glossary

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SBMI Glossary
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2010-09-14 21:37:41
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Small Bus Management glossary
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SBMI Glossary
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  1. ABC Method
    a method of classifying inventory items with categories which are of high values, less costly, and or low cost items
  2. Actuating (Directing)
    regulating the activities or course of activities of an organization; to guide and or supervise the activities of an organization; refers to those activities which encourage subordinates to work toward the achievment of the company's goals.
  3. Advertising
    The art of making the public aware of the services or commodity that the business has for sale
  4. Age Discriminiation
    Federal legislation that requires employers to treat applicants and employees equally regardless of age
  5. Aging Schedule
    A grouping of accounts receivable into age categories based upon the lengths of the time they have been outstanding on the company record.
  6. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    legislation that guarantees disabled people equal access to employment, as well as access to public places.
  7. Angels
    Private investors who are willing to supply financing for new and or risky small venture startups
  8. Articles of Partnership
    A written document that states explicitly the rights and duties of partners in a partnership.
  9. Average Collection Period
    A measure of the accounts receivable turnover
  10. Better Business Bureau
    Association of business firms that promotes ethical conduct by all business firms in a community
  11. Board of Directors
    The governing body that is elected by the stockholders of a corporation
  12. Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)
    A qualification that is absolutely necessary for the job; it is an allowed and approved reason for discrimination
  13. Book Value
    The cost of a fixed asset less accumulated depreciation
  14. Brand
    The identification for a product
  15. Break-Even Analysis
    The point at which total sales revenue equals total operating cost
  16. Burglary
    The forcible breaking and entering of premises closed for business with the subsequent removal of cash or merchandise
  17. Business
    An organization that combines inputs of raw materials, capitals, labor, and management skills to produce useful outputs of goods and services so as to earn a profit.
  18. Business Interruption Insurance
    An insurance that protects companies during the period necessary to restore property damaged by an insured peril. Coverage pays for lost income and other expenses related to recovery.
  19. Business Plan (New Venture Plan)
    A written description of a new idea that projects marketing, operational, and financial aspects of proposed business.
  20. Business Policies
    Fundamental statements that serve as guides to management practice
  21. Casualty Insurance
    Insurance that provides monetary benefits to a business that has experienced and unforeseen peril such as flood, fire, etc.
  22. Caveat Venditor
    let the seller beware
  23. Census of Business
    A source of market data that explains where certain businesses are located
  24. Census of Housing
    A source of market data that keeps track of new home sales by region and/or the construction of new houses by region and specific area.
  25. Census of Manufacturing
    A source of marketing data that explains where certain businesses are located
  26. Census of Population
    A source of market data that explains where certain manufacturers are located
  27. Chain of Command
    The superior-subordinate relationship that serves as a channel for two-way communication.
  28. Chamber of Commerce
    An association of business people who attempt to protect and promote the commercial interest in a community.
  29. Circulating Captial
    The current asset items consisting of cash, inventiories, and accounts receivable.
  30. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Federall legislation that prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin
  31. Coinsurance Clause
    A clause in an insurance policy under which the insured agrees to maintain insurance equal to some specified percentage of the property value or otherwise to assume a portion of any loss.
  32. Competition
    The practice of trying to obtain something that is being sought by others under similar circumstances at the same time.
  33. Consumer Credit
    A type of credit granted by retailers that is used by individuals or families for satisfaction of their own wants.
  34. Consumerism
    The emphasis placed on providing to customers products and services that are safe, reliable, ad honestly advertised; also, a social movement that seeks to strengthen the rights to consumers.
  35. Controlling (Evaluating)
    A management function which compares organizational and individual performance with predetermined standards or expected results.
  36. Copyright
    The registered right of creator to reproduce, publish, and sell the work which is the product of the intelligence and skill of that person.
  37. Corporate Refugees
    Those individuals who flee the bureaucratic envronment of big business by going into business for themselves.
  38. Corporation
    A legal form of organization whereby a legal entity is authorized by a state to operate a business under the entity's charter or articles of incorporation
  39. Corporation Charter
    The written application for permission to incorporate that is approved by a state offical.
  40. Credit
    An agreement that payment for a product or service will be made at some later date.
  41. Credit Bureau
    An organization of retailers and other firms in a given community that serves its members by summarizing their credit experience with particular individuals.
  42. Credit Insurance
    Insurance that protects non-retailing businesses from abnormal bad debt losses.
  43. Current Ration
    The current assets divided by the current liabilities and a measure of the liquidity of the business.
  44. Debt Equity (Debt Capital, Borrowed Capital)
    Any borrowed or loaned capital invested in the business that must be repaid to creditors.
  45. Deductible Clause
    Insurance policy provision that makes the insurer liable only for losses in excess of the state deductible.
  46. Delegation of Authority
    A superior's act of granting to subordinates, on the basis of competence , the right to act or decide.
  47. Demographics
    The statistical study of human populations with respect to their size, density, distribution, composition and income.
  48. Directing
    (Actuating) regulating the activities or course of activities of an organization; to guide and or supervise the activites of an organization; refers to those activities which encourage suborndinates to work toward the achievement of the company's goals.
  49. Disaster
    a sudden misfortune, resulting in the loss of life and/or property.
  50. Earnings Valuation Approach
    A business valuation approach which centers on estimating the amount of potential income that may be produced by the business in the next year.
  51. Economic Base
    The wealth produced in or near a community that provides employment and income to the local population.
  52. Economic Order Quanity (EOQ)
    The quanity to be purchased which minimizes total costs.
  53. Emergency
    an unforeseen combination of circumstances that results in a need for immediate action
  54. Employment Application
    A record of statements made at the time the applicant first seeks employment
  55. Employment Interview
    The primary way of judging the job applicant's appearance, poise, speech, etc.
  56. Endowment Life Insurance
    Life insurance that allows the insured, rather than the beneficiary, to collect the face value of the policy upon maturity or to collect that value in annual payments.
  57. Enterpreneaur
    One who organizes, manges, and assumes the risk of a business firm or venture.
  58. Equal Employment Opportunity Act
    The absence of empolyment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
  59. Equal Pay Act
    Outlaws discrimination in pay against those who are over forty years old.
  60. Evaluating
    (controlling) A managment function which compares organizational and individual performance with predetermined standards or expected results.
  61. Facilities Management
    the obtaining and maintaining of adequate workspace and equipment
  62. Factoring
    Obtaining cash before payments are received from customers by selling off one's accounts for overtime pay for all hours worked over forty hours.
  63. Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
    a federal law that establishes a minimum wage and provides for overtime pay for all hours worked over forty hours.
  64. Finance
    The business function of effectively obtaining and using funds.
  65. Financial Management
    the efficient utilization and adequate regulaton of assets, revenue, Expenditures and capital rights.
  66. First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Method
    the first goods purchased are the first goods sold
  67. Fixed Captial
    Long-term capital that is invested in the small business; also, funds invested in such long-term assets as: land, building, machinery, furniture, fixtures, and other equipment
  68. Fixed Expenses
    A cost that, for a given period of time and range of activity called the relevant range, does not change in total but become pogressively smaller on a per-unit basis as volume increases; these expenses do not increase with increased business, nor do they decrease with declining business activity.
  69. General Liabillity Insurance
    Insuance covering business liabiity to customers who might be injured on or off premises or from the product sold to them.
  70. Goodwill
    An intangible asset such as the name of a funeralhome; also, an intangible asset which enables a business to ear a profit in excess of the normal rate of profit earned by other businesses of the same kind.
  71. Human Relations
    motivating people in organizations to develop teamwork which effectively fulfills their needs and achieves organizational objectives.
  72. Human Resource Forecast
    determining personnel needs in terms of numbers of individuals and their required skills.
  73. Human Resource Management
    the process of acquiring, training, developing, motivating and appraising a sufficient quantity of qualified employees to perform necessary activities.
  74. Human Resource Planning
    developing a comprehensive strategy for meeting future human resource needs.
  75. Immigration Reform Act
    Federal legislation requiring employers to check job applicants papers to be sure they are either U.S. citizens or aliens authorized to work in the U.S.
  76. Innovation
    the introdution of something new; a new idea, method, or device.
  77. Installment Credit (Closed End Credit)
    balance of costly goods paid for in small monthly (fractional) payments over a period of time
  78. Insurance
    Uneventful protection for the small business or small business owner in regards to monetary compensation in the event that a business and/or personal peril is experienced
  79. Intangible Asset
    a type of asset that is not able to be physically touched but is retained by a small business because of its genuine value appeal
  80. Interdependence
    the dependency of businesses on one another
  81. Interviewing
    a job-analysis technique in which individuals currently holding a particuar job are asked questions concernig the requirements of the job.
  82. Inventory
    those goods or stock of goods which are held for resale
  83. Inventory Turnover
    the number of times the average inventory has been sold or used up during a period.
  84. Job Analysis
    a process for determining the critical components of a job for purposes of selecting, training, and rewarding personnel
  85. Job Description
    a document that lists the major responsiblities and tasks of the job.
  86. Job Specification
    a document that lists the knowledge, skills, abilities and personal characteristics a job holder must possess to perform effectively.
  87. Key-Person Life Insurance
    life insurance that protects a firm against losses due to the death of a key employee
  88. Last-In, First-Out (LIFO) Method
    the most recently purchased goods are the first sold.
  89. Life Insurance
    insurance that provides death benefits to the survivors of the insured
  90. Limited Liability Company
    a new form of business ownership that combines the aspects of partnerships with the limited liability of a corporation; owners are known as members
  91. Line of Credit
    an understanding between a bank and the business indicating the maximum amount the bank is willing to loan the borrower
  92. Liquidation Value Approach
    the anticipated value of an asset that would be realized in case of liquidation of the business
  93. Management
    the art and science of motivating people toward the achievement of a goal.
  94. Manufacturing Business
    a business that makes finsihed goods from raw materials by hand or machinery
  95. Markdown
    a reduction of selling price below the original selling price
  96. Market
    a group of potential customers possessing purchasing power and unsatisfied needs.
  97. Marketing
    the process of planning and executing the development, pricing, promotion, and distribution of an organization's goods or service
  98. Market Survey
    a study that is used by a business to determin where the potential customers are located
  99. Market Value Approach
    an approach used in business valuation which determines value based upon previous sales of similar businesses.
  100. Markup
    the difference between merchandise cost and selling price, i.e. gross margin
  101. Merchandising Business
    a business that purchases finished goods for resale
  102. Mortgage
    a claim given by the borrower to the lender against the borrower's property in return for a loan.
  103. Mortgage Loan
    a loan secured by a mortgage on property
  104. Occupational Saftey & Health Act (OSHA)
    federal legislation that mandates that employers provide a workplace that is free from hazards likely to cause death or serious physical harm
  105. Office Managment
    the administratin and supervision of office duties and functions.
  106. Open End Credit (Revolving Credit)
    a line of credit that may be used over and over again up to a certain borrowing limit
  107. Operating Rations
    a comparison of profit and each item of expense in the income statement expressed as a percentage of sales income; the operating rations can be compared to the industry standard in regards to measuring the possible growth of the business
  108. Organizing
    the way in which work is arranged and distributed amount members of the firm
  109. Overhead
    any cost not specifically associated with production of identifiable products and services; expenses incurred in the normal operation of a business
  110. Partnership
    a form of legal organization in which a business association made up of two or more persons is formed for the purpose of carrying on as co-owners
  111. Patent
    the registered right of an inventor to make, use, and sell an invention
  112. Personal Capital (Equity Capital)
    capital that is invested in the business by the owner(s)
  113. Planning
    that function of determining in advance what needs to be accomplished in order to achieve a particular goal.
  114. Pricing Policy
    factors which influence prices
  115. Product Liability Insurance
    insurance that protects a firm against claims that its product caused bodily injury or property damage to the user
  116. Recruitment
    the process of forming a pool of qualified applicants for tasks that need to be filled
  117. Replacement Value Approach
    the fair market price to purchase similar products in similar condition
  118. Resume
    written summary of one's personal, educational, and professional achievements
  119. Risk
    a condition in which there is a possibility of an adverse deviation from a desired outcome that is expected or hoped for.
  120. Risk Management
    all efforts designed to preserve assets and earning power associated with a business.
  121. Sales Promotion
    a plan which provides inducements to potential purchasers of products and or services
  122. Self-Insurance
    a form of risk managment where by a part of the firm's earnings is earmarked as a contingency fnd for possible future losses, specifically for individual loss catergories such as property, medical, or worker's compensation.
  123. Service Business
    a business that provides a servivce as opposed to a product
  124. Small Business
    a business which is independently owned and operated and is not dominant in it's field of operations
  125. Small Business Administration (SBA)
    the principal goverment agency concered with the financing, operation, and mangement of small businesses.
  126. Sole Proprietorship (Proprietorship)
    a legal form of organization whereby the business is owned and operated by one person
  127. Staffing
    a managment function dealing with the recruitment, selection, placemet, training, developement, and appraisals of the employees of the firm.
  128. Tangible Assets
    a physiical asset that possses genuine value.
  129. Term Life Insurance
    life insurance that has no cash value whenever the policy expires
  130. Total Quality Management (TQM)
    the efforts of all memebers of an organization directed to ensure that the quality in the production of goods and services is achieved
  131. Trade Credit
    a form of credit that is extended by one business to another business to help finance distribution of producer's goods.
  132. Trademark
    an intangible asset that is distinct name, sign, or symbol that the fedeal goverment grants exclusive right to use for specified period of time
  133. Universal Life Insurance
    a combination of whole life insurance and term life insurance
  134. Variable Expense
    a cost which is uniform per unit, but fluctuates in total in direct proportion to change in the related total activity or volume
  135. Venture Capitalist
    anyone that invests in, or financially sponsers, a new business
  136. Vietname Era Veterans Readjustment Act
    outlaws discrimination in employment against Vietnam Era veternas
  137. Whole Life Insurance
    life insurance that gives lifetime protection to the insured person
  138. Working Capital (Circulating Capital)
    the difference between current assets and current liabilities

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