Micro Ch 4

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  1. Compare and Contrast Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes ( 4 ways each)
    • Prokaryotes ( pre nucleus
    • - 1 chromosome, no membrane
    • -No histone/organelles
    • - Cell wall in..
    • bacteria: peptidoglycan
    • archae: pseudomurein 
    • divide by binary fission 

    • Eukaryotes ( true nucleus) 
    • - Paired chromosomes in nucelar membrane
    • -Histones and organelles
    • - cell wall: polysaccharide
    • - Mitotic spindle
  2. Main feature that distinguishes prokaryotes from eukaryotes
    prokaryotes dont have a distinct nucleus instead they have DNA
  3. Identify 3 bacterial shapes
  4. bacteria-shapes.png?w=417Bacillus = rod 
    • -streptobacilli ( chain of rods) 
    • Coccus = sphere 
    • -staphylcocci (cluster of coccus)
    • Spiral 
    • -vibrio, spirochete
  5. How to identify streptococci through a microscope
    Cocci that divide but stay in chains 

  6. Describe the structure and function of the glycocalyx in prokaryotes
    • A sugar coat
    • Secreted to the outside of cell wall 
    • Made  of polysaccharides ( lets things attach ) 

    - Something organized attaches firmly to the cell wall, and stops phagocytosis =  capsules 

    - Unorganized and loosely attaches to the cell wall the glycocalyx = slime layer 

    Helps cells in a biofilm attach to target environments and with each other = EPS
  7. Why are bacterial capsules medically important ?
    Capsules stop phagocytosis causing sickness
  8. What is flagella?
    • Long appendages
    • Made of chains of flagellin, attached to a protein hook
    • Anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body  

    - Move by rotating fast, then switch direction called "run", move torward/ or away from the stimulus = taxis 

  9. What are axial filaments ( endoflagella)
    • In bacteria called spirochetes.
    • Its anchored at one end of a cell, and spirals around
    • When it rotates causing the cell to move
  10. What are fimbriae?
    Short appendages that allow attachment ( velcro) not movement 

    Can be at cell poles/ all over
  11. What are pili ?
    • Facilitate transfer from DNA from 1 cell to another 
    • gliding, and twitching
  12. Gram-positive cell walls
    • 2 ring basal body , disrupted by lysozyme
    • - Penicillin-sensitive 
    • Thick peptidoglycan cell wall
    • Bound by Teichoic Acid 
    • May regulate movement of cations
    • Gram stain= purple 
    • filled_in_gram_positive-142f333f2a14da7d73e-150769B50B0382A6567.png
  13. Gram negative cell wall
    • 4 ring basal body. Lipid A= endotoxin 
    • Thin peptidoglycan and outer membrane 
    • Has periplasmic space ( fluid between outer layer and plasm) --formed by lipopolysaccharide 

    • - protects from phagocytes, antibiotics. - -Tetracycline sensitive 
    • -Gram stain disolves outermembrane = pink red 

  14. Acid fast cell walls
    • Like gram positive 
    • Have mycolic acid ( waxy lipid) attached to peptidoglycan
  15. Mycoplasms
    • No cell walls
    • Sterols in plasma membrane
    • resistant to penicillin
  16. Archaea cell walls
    • Have no cell wall 
    • Have pseudo murein instead of peptidoglycan
  17. Why are drugs that target cell wall synthesis useful?
    If there is no cell wall, bacteria is susceptable to destruction
  18. Why are mycoplasms resistant to antibiotics that interfere with cell wall synthesis?
    • They have no cell walls
    • Have sterols in plasma membranes
  19. How to bacteria move?
    • They rotate flagella producing a forward or backward motion called runs ( go forward) , tumbles (stops motion) 
    • Pili: pull bacteria when retracted
  20. Structure, chemistry and functions of prokaryotic plasma membrane
    • Phospholipid bilayer ( polar hydrophilic heads) 

    Peripheral proteins: in membrane acts as enzymes if shape changes 

    Integral proteins : Can be removed after disrupted lipid bilayer ( detergents) 

    • Fluid mosaic model: Membrane like olive oil so proteins can move enough to function but not ruin the structure 
    • phospholipids rotate and move laterally 

    • selective permeable : passage for some 
    • enzymes for ATP production
    • enzymes for ATP production
    • some bacteria have photosynthetic pigments: chromataphores
  21. Agents that hurt the bacterial plasma membrane
    • alcohol
    • quaternary ammonium ( detergent) 
    • polymyxin antibiotics ( causes cell leakage)
  22. Define simple diffusion
    • Move from high to low
    • -doesnt use energy
  23. Define facilitated diffusion
    • Solute combines with transporter protein in the membrane
    • - doesnt use energy
  24. Define osmosis
    movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from high water to low concentration
  25. define active transport
    • materials from a  high to low concentration 
    • the cell must use energy. Transporter proteins are used but substances arent altered to cross 

    ( often used when bacteria have low nutrients)
  26. define group translocation
    Substance must be chemically altered to go through the plasma membrane. The cell must used PEP as energy so a transporter protein takes it across the membrane
  27. How are simple and facilitated diffusion similar and different
    • both: dont use energy because substances go from high to low
    • different: facilitated diffusion uses transporters
  28. Function of a ribosome
    • In the cytoplasm of a prokaryote containing 70S ribosomes ( 50 +30) 
    • Ribosomes consist of rRNA and protein;
    • Synthesize proteins, and can be inhibited by certain antibiotics
  29. What are inclusions
    Reserve deposites ( accumulate nutrients) 

    In prokayotes and eukaryotes 

    • In bacteria:
    • -metachromatic granules ( phosphate reserves) 
    • -Lipid inclusions, sulfer granules, polysaccharide granuales = energy reserves
  30. Function on endospores 
    process of sporulation and endospore germination
    resting cells, resistant to heat, desiccation, chemicals 

    sporulation: endospores form when C or N is not available 

    Image Upload

    germination: back to vegetative state
  31. Differences between prokaryote and eukaryote flagella
    prokaryote flagella: rotates

    • Eukaryote flagella :
    • - moves in a wave
    • -Have microtubules ( 9 pairs +2 array)
  32. Define lophotrichous
    multiple flagella ( tuft) at one pole or both
  33. Define peritrichous
    multiple flagella all over
  34. define monotrichous
    1 flagellum at one pole
  35. define amphitrichous
    1 flagella at both poles
  36. Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell walls
    • Prokaryotic cell wall
    • - Cell wall around the plasma membrane protects the cell from water pressure change 
    • - bacterial cell wall = peptidoglycan 
    • - penicillin interferes with peptidoglycan synthesis 
    • - gram positive cell walls have many layers of peptidoglycan+ teichoic acids 
    • -gram negative have lipopolysaccharide outer membrane around a thin peptoglycan layer 
    • - outer membrane protects from phagocytosis 
    • - have porin channels  

    • Eukaryote Cell wall 
    • - cell wall has cellulose ( alagae + fungi) 
    • -fungal cell wall = chitin
    • - yeast cell wall = glucan, mannan 
    • -
  37. Compare and contrast prokaryote and eukaryote glycocalyx
    • prokaryote 
    • - polysaccharide :
    • capsules: protect from phagocytosis ,enable adherence 
    • slime layer
    • Eukaryote:
    • - made of sticky carbs from animal plasma membrane 
    • -strengthens cells surface and helps cells attach and recognize eachother
  38. Compare and contrast prokaryote and eukaryote plasma membranes
    Both: Phospholipid bilayer 

    Prokaryotes: no carbs or sterols ( less rigid) 

    Eukaryotes: Cholestrol + sterols = receptors
  39. Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytoplasms
    Prokaryotes: nuceloid with DNA

    • Eukaryotes: has microfilaments and intermediate filaments, and microtubles= cytoskeleton  ( help with transport) 
    • - Has cytoplasmic streaming: movement to distribute nutrients , enzymes in organelles
  40. Compare the structure and function of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes
    Both: Ribosomes=protein synth

    • Prokaryote
    • - Small (70S) - less protein rRNA

    • Eukaryote 
    • -Big ( 80S)
  41. If the antibiotic erythromycin binds with the 50S portion of a ribosome, what effect might it have on a prokaryotic cell? What about a eukaryotic cell?
    • prokaryotes: will kill the cells
    • - antibiotic will stop protein synthesis by attaching to the 50S

    eukaryotes: doesnt effect the cell at all because it does not have a 50S portion
  42. 2 supports of evidence that supports the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotic evolution. 
    How did organelles form
    How did cilia form
    Theory: Larger bacterial cells lost their cell walls and engulfed smaller bacteria 

    - Both mitochondiral and chloroplast ribosomes resemble bacteria in size and shape 

    • - Organelles have circular DNA which is typical for prokaryotes , and the organelles can reproduce independently of their host cell 
    • - Mitochondrial, and chloroplasts ribosomes resemble those of prokaryotes and their mechanism for protein synthesis similar to those found in bacteria than eukaryotes

Card Set Information

Micro Ch 4
2016-09-18 15:19:50
Functional anatomy of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
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