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Compare William James's Principles of Psychology with the content of mental philosophy.
- Both addressed consciousness, sensation, perception, association, memory, attention, imagination, reasoning, emotions, and will
- However, he linked stream of consciousness to selective attention.
How did James use the concept of stream of consciousness to criticize Wundt's psychology?
He argued that consciousness did not exist in small bits, but flowed like a stream.
What did James believe to be the important survival value of consciousness?
The ability to use selective attention to make choices.
What does the James-Lange theory say about emotion?
Bodily changes resulted from the perception of the situation, and that recognition of the bodily changes subsequently produces emotion.
What contribution did Mary Whiton Calkins make to memory research?
The paired associates method, where one item is used to cue another.
Describe Self Psychology.
- Psychology should be a science of selves and not of consciousness or behavior.
- There were several selves: the unique self, the social self, the self that does/doesn't change.
What was notable about Mary Whiton Calkins’s role in the APA?
She was the first woman to hold that position!
What was the first professional organization for psychologists in America, and who founded it?
- American Psychological Association
- Stanley Hall.
Despite its failure, Hall's child study movement had several positive outcomes. What were these?
- Sparked development of developmental/educational psychology
- Made evident need for physical, behavioral, social and intellectual norms or children
- Used applications to better education/parenting
- The new psychology could be used or the greater good
What is meant by the claim that "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny?"
- The evolutionary developments in one's ancestry are repeated in the development of the individual, from conception to adolescence.
- This was evident in physiology and psychology
What did Cattell claim about what his tests could identify?
- Aptitudes of students
- Which students were gifted
- What valuable qualities may be early discovered and developed.
What did Cattell and Wissler find about the relationship between scores on Cattell’s tests and grades students earned in their college classes?
There was no correlation.
How was Cattell's editorship of Science important to psychology?
He took a dying publication and made it available to more people in the scientific community.