Muscles of the Head and Neck (Mastication & Hyoid)

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  1. What are the four muscles of mastication
    masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid muscles
  2. The masticator space is a general term used to
    include the entire area of the mandible and muscles of mastication
  3. The muscles of mastication are responsible for
    closing the jaws, moving the lower jaw forward or backward, and shifting the lower jaw to one side
  4. These muscles of mastication work with the _______ to accomplish these movements of the mandible
    temporomandibular joint
  5. All the muscles of mastication are innervated by the
    the fifth cranial or trigeminal nerve
  6. What muscle is the most superficial and one of the strongest
    Masseter muscle
  7. The what two muscles of mastication  has two heads
    • masseter muscle and medial pterygoid muscle 
    • superficial and deep
  8. Both heads of the masseter muscle originate from ______ and insert on ______
    • from the zygomatic arch but from differing areas
    • The deep part is partly concealed by the superficial part
    • the external surface of the mandible
  9. Contraction of the masseter muscle
    • elevate the mandible, raising the lower jaw
    • (closes the mouth)
  10. Image Upload
    • 1 Deep head of masseter
    • 2 Ramus of mandible
    • 3 Zygomatic arch
    • 4 Superficial head of the masseter
  11. _______fills the temporal fossa, superior to the zygomatic arch
    The temporalis muscle
  12. Where does the temporalis muscle originate
    the entire temporal fossa on the temporal bone
  13. The temporalis muscles inserts onto
    coronoid process of the mandible at the border of the ramus
  14. What action does the entire temporalis muscle perform
    elevate the mandible, raising the lower jaw
  15. If the posterior portion of the temporalis muscle contracts what does that do
    • the muscle moves the lower jaw backward
    • Moving the lower jaw backward causes retraction of the mandible
  16. Image Upload
    • 1 Inferior temporal line
    • 2 Temporalis
    • 3 Coronoid process of mandible
  17. The larger head of the medial pterygoid muscle originates from the
    the lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone
  18. The smaller superficial head of the medial pterygoid muscle originates from the
    palatine bone and maxillary tuberosity of the maxilla
  19. Both heads of the medial pterygoid muscle pass ______, _______, and _______ to insert on the
    • inferior, posterior and lateral
    • medial surface of the ramus and angle of the mandible
  20. The function of the medial pterygoid muscle is to
    elevates the mandible, raising the lower jaw
  21. The lateral pterygoid muscle is located _____ to the medial pterygoid
    superior
  22. The entire mass of the lateral pterygoid muscle lies
    within the infratemporal fossa, deep to the temporalis muscle
  23. The superior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle originates from
    the greater wing of the sphenoid bone and passes inferiorly to insert on the temporomandibular joint disc and capsule
  24. The inferior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle originates from
    the lateral pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone and inserts on the condyle of the mandible
  25. The pterygomandibular space is formed by the
    lateral pterygoid muscle, medial pterygoid muscle and the mandibular ramus
  26. The function of the lateral pterygoid is to
    • assists in depressing the mandible
    • protrusion of the mandible when both muscles contract 
    • lateral deviation of the mandible if only one muscle is contracted
  27. What are the two categories of hyoid muscles
    • suprahyoid
    • infrahyoid
  28. Name the anterior suprahyoid muscles
    • the anterior belly of the digastric
    • the mylohyoid
    • and the geniohyoid
  29. Name the posterior suprahyoid muscles
    the posterior belly of the digastric and stylohyoid
  30. The hyoid muscles assist in
    the actions of mastication and swallowing through their attachment to the hyoid bone
  31. Both groups of hyoid muscles (suprahyoid and infrahyoid) are attached to
    the hyoid bone
  32. The anterior and posterior belly of the digastric muscle are separated by a
    loop-like tendon in the center
  33. The digastric muscles runs from the
    mastoid process (temporal bone) down and forward to hyoid and from there up to inferior surface of mandible
  34. The anterior belly of the digastric muscle is innervated by the
    fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve)
  35. The posterior belly of the digastric muscle is innervated by
    the seventh cranial (facial nerve)
  36. The mylohyoid muscle form the _______ and helps _______and originates on _______
    • floor of the mouth and helps elevate the tongue
    • either side of mandible and inserts on hyoid
  37. Midline fusion of the mylohyoid muscle is called the
    raphe
  38. The mylohyoid muscle is innervated by
    the fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve)
  39. The stylohyoid muscle originates and inserts ______
    originates on styloid process and inserts on hyoid
  40. The stylohyoid muscle is innervated by
    a branch of the seventh cranial nerve (facial nerve).
  41. What is the function of the stylohyoid muscle
    Pulls hyoid bone back and up
  42. The geniohyoid muscle is innervated by
    the first cervical nerve (spinal nerve) which is conducted by way of the twelfth cranial or hypoglossal nerve
  43. What is the function of the geniohyoid muscle
    Aids in depressing mandible
  44. Where does the geniohyoid muscle originate and inserted
    • It originates from the medial surface of the mandible, near the mandibular symphysis at the genial tubercles, with both muscles in contact with each other.
    • It then passes posteriorly and inferiorly to insert on the body of the hyoid bone
  45. Name the infrahyoid muscles
    • sternohyoid
    • sternothyroid
    • thyrohyoid
    • and omohyoid muscles
  46. All the infrahyoid muscles are innervated by
    the second and third cervical nerves
  47. What is the function of most of the infrahyoid muscles
    depress the hyoid bone
  48. The sternothyroid muscle originates from the ______ and inserts on the ______
    • the sternum
    • thyroid cartilage
  49. The function of the sternothyroid muscle is to
    pull the larynx down
  50. The sternohyoid muscle runs from ____ to____
    sternum up to hyoid
  51. What is the function of the sternohyoid muscle
    pull hyoid down
  52. The two bellies of the Omohyoid are separated by
    tendon
  53. The Omohyoid muscle originates ____ and inserts ____
    on scapula and inserts on hyoid
  54. The function of the Omohyoid muscle is to
    Pulls hyoid down
  55. The thyrohyoid originates on the _____ and inserts ____
    thyroid cartilage and inserts the hyoid bone; it appears as a continuation of the sternothyroid
  56. What is the function of the thyrohyoid muscle
    In addition to depressing the hyoid bone, it raises the thyroid cartilage and larynx

Card Set Information

Author:
haitianwifey
ID:
323357
Filename:
Muscles of the Head and Neck (Mastication & Hyoid)
Updated:
2016-09-20 19:19:35
Tags:
Muscles Head Neck Mastication Hyoid
Folders:
Dental anatomy
Description:
Muscles of the Head and Neck (Mastication & Hyoid)
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