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4 parts of the nervous system
- Spinal cord
- Sensory receptors
4 characteristics of the Nervous system
- responds to external and internal environment
- learning and memory
- language and communication
4 operations of skeletal muscle
- heat production
- output of the nervous system
Glands secrete hormones that regulate (4)
- water retention
Blood vessels transport blood which carries? (3)
Respiratory system _____ blood and removes ____. Where does gas exchange occur?
- Through the walls of the air sacs in the lungs (alveoli)
Another name for the immune system?
3 functions of lymphatic system
- picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels
- houses white blood cells (lymphocytes)
- Mounts attacks against foreign substances in the body
Digestive system's absorption takes place in the?
Digestive system eliminates ______ _____ as feces
Urinary system functions (3)
- Eliminate nitrogenous waste
- regulate acid/ base balance
- regulate water/ electrolyte balance
Name the three isotopes of hydrogen and their proton/ neutron counts
- Protium: (1P/0N)
- deuterium: (1P/1N)
- tritium: (1P/2N)
Name 4 types of chemical bonds
- van der waals
Covalent bond's defining characteristic and two major types
The sharing of electrons
- Polar covalent: some difference in electronegativity of atoms
- Non polar covalent: little to no difference in electronegativity of atoms
Type of bond formed when two ions of opposing charges interacts and one gives up one or more electrons in order to attain a complete octet
define hydrogen bond
a weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.
H-bonds are weak but enough of them are strong enough to influence something like?
Shapes of DNA and proteins
Van der Waal forces (3)
- weak bonds
- noncovalent interaction between nonpolar bonds
- form the basis of why nonpolar molecules stick together
Polar molecules are said to be _____ while non polar molecules are said to be ______
Water's unique structure (3)
- polar molecule
- forms hydrogen bonds
- tetrahedral shape
water's special properties
- temp. moderation
- solvent of life
- cohesive and surface tension
- density of the solid state (ice)
Water has a ____ specific heat. Define specific heat
- the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°C
What does water's heat capacity enable?
It helps moderate climates
When acids dissolve in water, they release ____ __ which can attach to other molecules and change their _____
Measure of hydrogen ion concentration
Purpose of the pH scale
indicate the strength of a solution of an acid or base
what does a pH of 7 mean?
Concentration of hydrogen ions is 1*10-7M of water
Four major types of biological molecules
- nucleic acids
Most biological molecules are ____ of smaller molecules called _____
combo of 20 amino acids
sugar monomers (monosaccharides) are linked to form polysaccharides
- deoxyribonucleic acid
- ribonucleic acid
polymers specialized for the storage, transmission, and use of genetic information. Particularly evident in DNA & RNA
central dogma ♛
the coded genetic information hard-wired into DNA is transcribed into individual transportable cassettes, composed of messenger RNA (mRNA); each mRNA cassette contains the program for synthesis of a particular protein (or small number of proteins).
The monomeric units of nucleic acids are _____.
Nucleotides are made up of (3)
- pentose sugar
- phosphate group
- nitrogen containing a base
noncovalent forces maintain interactions between ____ ____
the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase when it comes in contact with humid air. It is the reverse of evaporation.
chemical breakdown of a compound due to a reaction with water
Protein types: (6)
- defensive proteins (antibodies)
- hormonal and regulatory proteins
- receptor proteins
- storage, structure, transport
- genetic regulation
Energy and information storage are NOT done by ____
What determines protein structure
Primary amino acid sequence
basic four parts of an amino acid
- α Carbon
- amino group
- carboxyl group
- side chain (r group)
amino acid that forms disulfide bonds
amino acid that serves as a neurotransmitter
amino acid found at bends and loops
Amino acids bond together covalently in a ______ reaction via ______ ______
- condensation reaction
- peptide linkages (bonds)
The first amino acid (AA) in a polypeptide is the _______, whereas the last AA in a polypeptide is the _______
4 levels of protein structure
Secondary protein's common motif that takes the shape of a coil?
β pleated sheets
beta strands (also β-strand) connected laterally by at least two or three backbone hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet.
a stretch of polypeptide chain typically 3 to 10 amino acids long with backbone in an extended conformation
In tertiary structure, bending and folding results in a ______ with a specific ____ ______ shape. Its outer surface presents ____ ____ that interact with other molecules.
- three dimensional shape
- functional groups
Tertiary structure is determined by interactions of R-groups: (5)
- disulfide bridges
- hydrogen bonds
- aggregation of hydrophobic side chains
- van der waals forces
- ionic bonds
Quaternary structure results from the interaction of subunits through which interactions? (4)
- hydrophobic interaction
- van der waals forces
- ionic bonds
- hydrogen bonds
What are the subunits of quaternary structures made of?
each subunit consist of its own unique tertiary strucutre
two functions of carbohydrates
- source of stored energy
- carbon skeletons for many other molecules
4 categories of carbs
- monosaccharides: (simple sugars)
- disaccharides: (two simple sugars linked by covalent bonds)
- oligosaccharides: (3-20 monosaccharides)
- polysaccharides: (100s-1000s of monosaccharides-- (starch, glycogen cellulose)
- six carbon monosaccharides
- five carbon monosaccharides
all cells use _____ (______) as an energy source
glucose (a monosaccharide)
a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate
Oligosaccharides are often _____ bonded to ____ and ____ on cell surfaces and act as _____ ____.
- lipids & proteins
- recognition signals
Human blood groups get their specificity from ______ ____
storage of glucose in plants
storage of glucose in animals
very stable, good for structural components
Lipid functions (6)
- store energy
- cell membrane (phospholipids)
- steroids (hormones)
- myelin (coats nerves)
- oil and wax on skin, fur, and feathers that repel water
Lipids are characterized by ____ _____ ___. Fats tend to aggregate due to ______ forces and are _____.
- nonpolar covalent bonds
- Van der waal forces
fats and oils are ______ aka ___ ____ composed of?
- triglycerides aka simple lipids
- composed of fatty acids and glycerol
- glycerol: 3 OH groups
- fatty acid: nonpolar hydrocarbon with a polar carboxyl group
Carboxyls bond with hydroxyls of glycerol via?
an ester linkage
lipids are _____ _____ that are not polymers in the strict sense, because?
- nonpolar hydrocarbons
- because they are not made of monomers unlike proteins
fatty acids bound to glycerol; a phosphate group replaces one fatty acid
3 characteristics of phospholipids
- the heads are hydrophilic
- the tails are hydrophobic
- they are amphipathic
having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts (especially proteins)
in water, phospholipids line up with the hydrophobic ____ to and the phosphate ____ facing ____ to form a ____. Biological membranes display this kind of _____ ____ structure
- phospholipid bilayer structure
The backbone of DNA and RNA is a chain of ____ and _____ ____ which are bonded by ________ ______.
- sugars and phosphate groups
- phosphodiester linkages
In DNA & RNA structures:
phosphate groups link?
two strands of DNA run?
- link carbon 3' in one sugar to carbon 5' in another sugar
- run in opposite directions aka antiparallel
DNA's bases (4)
What are the complementary base pairings?
- (A) adenine
- (C) cytosine
- (G) guanine
- (T) thymine
- A-T & C-G
Purines pair with _______ via hydrogen bonding
Instead of ____, RNA uses the base ____. RNA is ____ stranded
- (T) thymine
- (U) uracil
3 functions of Nucleic acids (specifically ATP, GTP & cAMP)
- ATP: energy transducer in biochemical reactions
- GTP: energy source in protein synthesis
- cAMP: essential to the action of hormones and transmission of info in the nervous system